Cifonauta

marine biology image database

Tour:

Plankton: microscopic giants

Tubulariid hydroid
Tubulariid hydroid
Actinula larva.

Tubulariid hydroid

Actinula larva.

Taxa: Acharadria crocea
Size: visible
Place: Yacht Club de Ilhabela, Ilhabela, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, artificial substrate, benthic, cebimar-usp, dark field, larva
Hydromedusa
Hydromedusa
Adult medusa.

Hydromedusa

Adult medusa.

Taxa: Liriope tetraphylla
Size: visible
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, cebimar-usp, jellyfish, macrophotography, planktonic
Hydromedusa
Hydromedusa
Medusa adulta. A água-viva Olindias sambaquiensis é comum no litoral Sudeste, sobretudo nos meses de inverno e primavera. É conhecida dos banhistas pelo colorido vívido e pelos tentáculos urticantes.

Hydromedusa

Medusa adulta. A água-viva Olindias sambaquiensis é comum no litoral Sudeste, sobretudo nos meses de inverno e primavera. É conhecida dos banhistas pelo colorido vívido e pelos tentáculos urticantes.

Taxa: Olindias sambaquiensis
Size: huge
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: >100 mm, cebimar-usp, jellyfish, macrophotography, planktonic
Hydroid and hydromedusa
Hydroid and hydromedusa
Newly released medusa.

Hydroid and hydromedusa

Newly released medusa.

Taxa: Hebella furax
Size: tiny
Place: Saco Grande, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, benthic, cebimar-usp, dark field, epibiotic, jellyfish, planktonic, rocky-shore
Hydromedusa
Hydromedusa

Hydromedusa

Taxa: Eucheilota paradoxica
Size: visible
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, dark field, planktonic
Newly released medusa
Newly released medusa

Newly released medusa

Taxa: Clytia linearis
Size: visible
Place: Pier Petrobras, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, benthic, cebimar-usp, dark field
Hydromedusa
Hydromedusa

Hydromedusa

Taxa: Leuckartiara
Size: large
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, cebimar-usp, jellyfish, macrophotography, planktonic
Cubozoan
Cubozoan
Adult medusa.

Cubozoan

Adult medusa.

Taxa: Carybdea mora
Size: visible
Place: Seto fishing port, Shirahama, Japan
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, cnidarian tree of life project, jellyfish, macrophotography, planktonic, seto marine biological laboratory
Scyphozoan
Scyphozoan
Medusa.

Scyphozoan

Medusa.

Taxa: Phyllorhiza punctata
Size: large
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, jellyfish, macrophotography, planktonic
Scyphozoan
Scyphozoan
Adult medusa. The juvenile stage the spider crab Libinia ferreirae can be seen inside the bell of the jellyfish Lychnorhiza lucerna.

Scyphozoan

Adult medusa. The juvenile stage the spider crab Libinia ferreirae can be seen inside the bell of the jellyfish Lychnorhiza lucerna.

Taxon: Lychnorhiza lucerna, Libinia ferreirae
Size: large
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, jellyfish, macrophotography, planktonic, symbiosis
Scyphozoan
Scyphozoan
Adult medusa

Scyphozoan

Adult medusa

Taxa: Mastigias papua
Size: visible
Place: Seto fishing port, Shirahama, Japan
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, cnidarian tree of life project, jellyfish, macrophotography, planktonic, seto marine biological laboratory
Zoanthina larva
Zoanthina larva
The zoanthids have two types of larvae. The zoanthellas are cylindrical and have an ventral band of long cilia. The zoanthinas are oval or slightly elongated, with an equatorial band of cilia.

Zoanthina larva

The zoanthids have two types of larvae. The zoanthellas are cylindrical and have an ventral band of long cilia. The zoanthinas are oval or slightly elongated, with an equatorial band of cilia.

Taxa: Zoanthidea
Size: huge
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: >100 mm, benthic, cebimar-usp, dark field, larva, rocky-shore
Brittle star larva
Brittle star larva

Brittle star larva

Taxa: Ophiuroidea
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Pluteus
Pluteus

Pluteus

Taxa: Lytechinus variegatus
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, dark field, larva, planktonic
Starfish bipinnaria larva
Starfish bipinnaria larva

Starfish bipinnaria larva

Taxa: Asteroidea
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, dark field, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Plankton
Plankton
Vista geral de uma amostra de plâncton vivo, em estereomicroscópio.

Plankton

Vista geral de uma amostra de plâncton vivo, em estereomicroscópio.

Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, dark field, planktonic
Plankton
Plankton
Vista geral de uma amostra de plâncton vivo, em estereomicroscópio.

Plankton

Vista geral de uma amostra de plâncton vivo, em estereomicroscópio.

Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, dark field, planktonic
Mysid shrimp
Mysid shrimp

Mysid shrimp

Taxa: Mysidopsis juniae
Size: visible
Place: Praia do Segredo, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, bright field, cebimar-usp, demersal, planktonic
Parasitized copepod
Parasitized copepod

Parasitized copepod

Taxon: Acartia, Isopoda
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, dark field, parasite, planktonic
Copepod
Copepod
Female

Copepod

Female

Taxa: Centropages velificatus
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, dark field, planktonic
Copepod
Copepod

Copepod

Taxa: Copilia mirabilis
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, dark field, planktonic
Copepod
Copepod
Courtship ritual between a male and a female.

Copepod

Courtship ritual between a male and a female.

Taxa: Oncaea media
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, planktonic
Copepod
Copepod
Courtship ritual between a male and a female.

Copepod

Courtship ritual between a male and a female.

Taxa: Corycaeus giesbrechti
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, dark field, planktonic
Copepod
Copepod

Copepod

Taxa: Acartia lilljeborgii
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, dark field, planktonic
Copepod
Copepod

Copepod

Taxa: Thaumatopsyllidae
Size: micro
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: <0.1 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, dark field, planktonic
Copepod
Copepod

Copepod

Taxa: Macrosetella gracilis
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, dark field, planktonic
Copepod
Copepod

Copepod

Taxa: Calanopia americana
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, dark field, planktonic
Sergestid shrimp
Sergestid shrimp

Sergestid shrimp

Taxa: Lucifer faxoni
Size: visible
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, dark field, planktonic
Sergestid shrimp
Sergestid shrimp

Sergestid shrimp

Taxa: Lucifer faxoni
Size: visible
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, dark field, planktonic
Zoea larva
Zoea larva

Zoea larva

Taxa: Decapoda
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, dark field, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Mantis shrimp larva
Mantis shrimp larva

Mantis shrimp larva

Taxa: Stomatopoda
Size: none
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: cebimar-usp, dark field, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Ostracod
Ostracod

Ostracod

Taxa: Ostracoda
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, dark field, planktonic
Comb jelly or ctenophore
Comb jelly or ctenophore
Adult specimen.

Comb jelly or ctenophore

Adult specimen.

Taxa: Bolinopsis vitrea
Size: large
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, macrophotography, planktonic
Holoplanktonic polychaete
Holoplanktonic polychaete

Holoplanktonic polychaete

Taxa: Tomopteris
Size: visible
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, dark field, planktonic
Bryozoan larva (cyphonautes)
Bryozoan larva (cyphonautes)
One type of larva typical of bryozoans, cyphonauts spend weeks in the water column until settling on a substrate such as rocks or algae, undergoing metamorphosis into the adult form and creating a new colony.

Bryozoan larva (cyphonautes)

One type of larva typical of bryozoans, cyphonauts spend weeks in the water column until settling on a substrate such as rocks or algae, undergoing metamorphosis into the adult form and creating a new colony.

Taxa: Ectoprocta
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Bryozoan coronate larva
Bryozoan coronate larva

Bryozoan coronate larva

Taxa: Watersipora subtorquata
Size: tiny
Place: Ponta do Jarobá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, larva, lecithotrophic, planktonic
Chaetognath
Chaetognath

Chaetognath

Taxa: Flaccisagitta enflata
Size: visible
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, dark field, planktonic
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica

Tintinnid with hyaline lorica

Taxa: Ascampbelliella aperta
Size: micro
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: <0.1 mm, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, planktonic, unicellular
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica

Tintinnid with hyaline lorica

Taxa: Xystonellopsis heros
Size: micro
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: <0.1 mm, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, planktonic, unicellular
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica
Variation on lorica shape.

Tintinnid with hyaline lorica

Variation on lorica shape.

Taxa: Favella ehrenbergii
Size: micro
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: <0.1 mm, cebimar-usp, mev, planktonic, unicellular
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica

Tintinnid with hyaline lorica

Taxa: Favella ehrenbergii
Size: micro
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: <0.1 mm, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, planktonic, unicellular
Heteropod - marine free-swimming gastropod
Heteropod - marine free-swimming gastropod

Heteropod - marine free-swimming gastropod

Taxa: Atlanta peronii
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, planktonic
Pteropod mollusk
Pteropod mollusk

Pteropod mollusk

Taxa: Limacina lesueuri
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, dark field, planktonic
Comb jelly or ctenophore
Comb jelly or ctenophore

Comb jelly or ctenophore

Taxa: Beroe ovata
Size: large
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, macrophotography, planktonic
Comb jelly or ctenophore
Comb jelly or ctenophore
Adult specimen.

Comb jelly or ctenophore

Adult specimen.

Taxa: Mnemiopsis leidyi
Size: large
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, macrophotography, planktonic
Comb jelly or ctenophore
Comb jelly or ctenophore
Cydippid larva.

Comb jelly or ctenophore

Cydippid larva.

Taxa: Mnemiopsis leidyi
Size: visible
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, cebimar-usp, larva, macrophotography, planktonic
Megalopa larva
Megalopa larva

Megalopa larva

Taxa: Portunidae
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, dark field, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: tiny
Place: São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, confocal, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Larva with six arms.

Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Larva with six arms.

Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: tiny
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, dark field, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Tintinnid with agglutinated lorica
Tintinnid with agglutinated lorica

Tintinnid with agglutinated lorica

Taxa: Tintinnopsis tocantinensis
Size: micro
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: <0.1 mm, cebimar-usp, mev, planktonic, unicellular
Tintinnid with agglutinated lorica
Tintinnid with agglutinated lorica

Tintinnid with agglutinated lorica

Taxa: Codonellopsis ostenfeldi
Size: micro
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: <0.1 mm, cebimar-usp, mev, planktonic, unicellular
Peritrichian ciliate
Peritrichian ciliate

Peritrichian ciliate

Taxa: Vorticella oceanica
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, bright field, cebimar-usp, planktonic, unicellular
Dinoflagelate
Dinoflagelate

Dinoflagelate

Taxa: Dinophysis
Size: micro
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: <0.1 mm, bright field, cebimar-usp, planktonic, unicellular
Dinoflagelate
Dinoflagelate

Dinoflagelate

Taxa: Protoperidinium
Size: micro
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: <0.1 mm, bright field, cebimar-usp, planktonic, unicellular
Dinoflagelate
Dinoflagelate

Dinoflagelate

Taxa: Balechina coeruleus
Size: micro
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: <0.1 mm, bright field, cebimar-usp, planktonic, unicellular
Ciliate
Ciliate

Ciliate

Taxa: Hemicyclostina marina
Size: micro
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: <0.1 mm, bright field, cebimar-usp, planktonic, unicellular
Hydromedusa
Hydromedusa

Hydromedusa

Taxa: Corymorpha bigelowi
Size: visible
Place: Shirahama, Japan
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, cnidarian tree of life project, jellyfish, macrophotography, planktonic, seto marine biological laboratory
Hydromedusa
Hydromedusa

Hydromedusa

Taxa: Laodicea undulata
Size: large
Place: Shirahama, Japan
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, cnidarian tree of life project, dark field, jellyfish, planktonic, seto marine biological laboratory
Pelagosphaera larva
Pelagosphaera larva
Denominadas pelagosferas, as larvas de muitas espécies de sipuncúlidos são transparentes e nadam livres na água por meses antes de se transformarem no adulto, que tem aspecto vermiforme e vive enterrado na areia ou lodo.

Pelagosphaera larva

Denominadas pelagosferas, as larvas de muitas espécies de sipuncúlidos são transparentes e nadam livres na água por meses antes de se transformarem no adulto, que tem aspecto vermiforme e vive enterrado na areia ou lodo.

Taxa: Sipunculidae
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, dark field, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Polychaete epitoke with egg mass
Polychaete epitoke with egg mass

Polychaete epitoke with egg mass

Taxa: Proceraea
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, dark field, planktonic
Pilidium larva
Pilidium larva

Pilidium larva

Taxa: Nemertea
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Actinotroch larva
Actinotroch larva
Most phoronids have indirect development, with the formation of a planktotrophic larva called actinotroch. Actinotroch larvae spend weeks in the water column before settling in the habitat of the adult, which includes both consolidated and unconsolidated substrates, depending on the species.

Actinotroch larva

Most phoronids have indirect development, with the formation of a planktotrophic larva called actinotroch. Actinotroch larvae spend weeks in the water column before settling in the habitat of the adult, which includes both consolidated and unconsolidated substrates, depending on the species.

Taxa: Phoronida
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Larva
Larva

Larva

Taxa: Magelonidae
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, dark field, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Tornaria larva
Tornaria larva

Tornaria larva

Taxa: Hemichordata
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Dinoflagelate
Dinoflagelate

Dinoflagelate

Taxa: Ceratium
Size: micro
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: <0.1 mm, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, phytoplankton, planktonic, unicellular
Dinoflagelate
Dinoflagelate

Dinoflagelate

Taxa: Ceratium
Size: micro
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: <0.1 mm, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, phytoplankton, planktonic, unicellular
Crustacean larva
Crustacean larva

Crustacean larva

Taxa: Porcellanidae
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, dark field, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Spionid polychaete
Spionid polychaete
6-chaetiger pelagic larva.

Spionid polychaete

6-chaetiger pelagic larva.

Taxa: Pseudopolydora rosebelae
Size: visible
Place: Praia do Sino, Ilhabela, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, planktonic, planktotrophic
Mitraria larva
Mitraria larva

Mitraria larva

Taxa: Oweniidae
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Planctonic protozoan
Planctonic protozoan

Planctonic protozoan

Taxa: Sticholonche zanclea
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, planktonic, unicellular
Hydromedusa
Hydromedusa
Newly released medusa.

Hydromedusa

Newly released medusa.

Taxa: Ectopleura obypa
Size: tiny
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, jellyfish, planktonic
Fish larva
Fish larva

Fish larva

Taxa: Teleostei
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, larva, planktonic
Veliger larva
Veliger larva

Veliger larva

Taxa: Gastropoda
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Veliger larva
Veliger larva

Veliger larva

Taxa: Gastropoda
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, dark field, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Pelagosphaera larva
Pelagosphaera larva
Denominadas pelagosferas, as larvas de muitas espécies de sipuncúlidos são transparentes e nadam livres na água por meses antes de se transformarem no adulto, que tem aspecto vermiforme e vive enterrado na areia ou lodo.

Pelagosphaera larva

Denominadas pelagosferas, as larvas de muitas espécies de sipuncúlidos são transparentes e nadam livres na água por meses antes de se transformarem no adulto, que tem aspecto vermiforme e vive enterrado na areia ou lodo.

Taxa: Sipunculidae
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, dark field, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Larva
Larva

Larva

Taxa: Chaetopterus
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, dark field, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Larva
Larva

Larva

Taxa: Terebellidae
Size: tiny
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, cebimar-usp, dark field, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Larva
Larva

Larva

Taxa: Polynoidae
Size: none
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: cebimar-usp, dark field, larva, planktonic, planktotrophic
Scyphozoan
Scyphozoan

Scyphozoan

Taxa: Chrysaora lactea
Size: huge
Place: Canal de São Sebastião, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: >100 mm, adult, cebimar-usp, jellyfish, planktonic

Although generally small in size, planktonic beings are giants in stature. Basis of marine food chains, the plankton (Greek planktos, drifting) comprises a great diversity of uni- and multicellular organisms that live dispersed in water. This community is largely less than 0.01 mm to a few centimeters, but there are notable exceptions such as jellyfish and the Portuguese man-of-war, which tentacles can reach meters in length. Many swim well, but not enough to overcome the force of water. Therefore, they roam freely, being transported by marine currents.

In addition to being small, planktonic organisms are also transparent or translucent, and easily overlooked ― examining them requires the use of microscopes and special collecting devices, as several kinds of plankton nets. However, they are very abundant and reproduce with incredible speed. One liter of seawater can contain tens of thousands of these small organisms. Many of them are primary producers, i.e., perform photosynthesis, and are called phytoplankton. The phytoplankton, which includes several groups of "microalgae" that live only in the well-lit upper layer of oceans water, produces much of the atmospheric oxygen, and serve as food for a portion of the plankton unable to get energy directly from sunlight and that depends on it for survival, the zooplankton.

Besides feeding on phytoplankton, zooplankton species can consume bacteria and particulate organic matter. And, in turn, they serve as food for larger organisms, including other species of zooplankton, fish and even whales.

Many organisms spend all their life cycle in the plankton, such as both unicellular and invertebrate species: copepods, mollusks, crustaceans, polychaetes, etc. But the plankton community is also composed by the larvae of invertebrates and some fish whose adults inhabit the seabed or the water column (see the tour Marine larvae).

The plankters live in a physically different world than ours. In their environment, viscous forces prevail over their microscopic bodies, which have "difficulty" moving. To better understand this phenomenon, imagine yourself in a pool of molasses, in which it is only possible to swim or move any part of your body in slow motion. It is in this kind of environment that planktonic organisms obtain food and reproduce for millions of years.

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