Cifonauta

marine biology image database

Database organization

Cifonauta photos and videos can be searched by basic information (metadata), such as species, place, author, size, etc. These tags organized by categories like photographic technique, life stage, habitat, etc, provides a more informative and interesting navigation. For example, you might want to look for dark-field crustacean larvae photos, or just browse through the adult forms of planktonik organisms. Image categorization and a description for each tag (with a random example) is below.

Taxa

The taxonomic information in this site does not adopt any particular classification scheme and is built automatically from ITIS database. From the taxon name (contained in the image) we can retrieve its full taxonomic hierarchy and generate a simple tree for browsing. Therefore, the classification might not be in accordance with latest findings of each area; it reflects, almost strictly, the data from ITIS. Only in some cases we employ the phylogeny proposed by the author (or expert) that identified the species.

Size

We arbitrarily created 5 classes of sizes to provide an idea of organisms' dimensions. Benthic fauna received additional size information: macrofauna, meiofauna e microfauna (see item Life mode, below). Landscape/habitat photos do not hold size information, but if they are showing an specific organism (barnacles on rocky shore, for example) a size class is provided. Size classes are:

Size Description Example
0.1 - 1.0 mm Embryos, larvae and planktonic creatures.
<0.1 mm Unicellular organisms and details of multicellular organisms.
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica +
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica
>100 mm Even larger organisms.
Black Skimmer +
Black Skimmer
The black skimmer flies very close to the water, with the lower beak cutting the water surface.
10 - 100 mm Macroscopic organisms.
Hidrozoário colonial flutuante - detalhe da medusa evidenciando zooxantelas +
Hidrozoário colonial flutuante - detalhe da medusa evidenciando zooxantelas
Porpita is a colonial hydrozoan which lives floating on the sea surface. The polyps are arranged concentrically on the lower surface of a hard, chitinous central disk. There is a large central polyp (gastrozooid) around of which are arranged numerous gastro-gonozoids, polyps responsible for food intake and production of jellyfish. The dactilozooids are the polyps responsible for capturing food and defense, being located more externally.
1.0 - 10 mm Tiny creatures but visible at the naked eye.
Hydroid +
Hydroid
Colonial hydroid on a snail shell.

Photographic techniques

Different techniques used to capture the dataase images were divided in 4 categories.: submarine, macrophotography, landscape/seascape e microscopy. To embrace the variety of microscopy techiniques the latter was subdivided. This is the list of tags related to photographic techniques:

Technique Description Example
diving Photographs taken under water.
Porquinho, Peixe-porco +
Porquinho, Peixe-porco
Porquinho, Peixe-porco.
landscape Depicts an environment.
Alcatrazes archipelago +
Alcatrazes archipelago
macrophotography Detail shot with a hand-held digital camera, usually of an organism in aquarium.
Scyphozoan +
Scyphozoan
Adult medusa
mev Scanning electron microscopy.
Hydroid +
Hydroid
Base of hydranth, 200x
submarine
Peixe-borboleta +
Peixe-borboleta
Butterfly fish.
microscopy
bright field transmitted light illumination in which the sample appears dark in a bright background
confocal Confocal microscopy.
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit +
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
dark field transmitted illumination in which the light beam scatters as it hits the specimen, so it appears bright against a dark background
Plankton +
Plankton
Vista geral de uma amostra de plâncton vivo, em estereomicroscópio.
Differential interference contrast Microscopy technique used to enhance contrast in unstained, transparent samples (DIC).
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica +
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica
Variation on lorica shape.
polarized light Polarized light microscopy reveals birefringent structures.
Juvenile sea biscuit +
Juvenile sea biscuit
Oral region.
protargol impregnation Silver impregnation technique.
Epizoic ciliate +
Epizoic ciliate

Life stage

The organisms photographed are not always adults.

Stage Description Example
adult Sexually mature organism.
Entoprocta +
Entoprocta
Os Entoprocta (=Kamptozoa) compreendem um filo de animais invertebrados sésseis, coloniais ou solitários, um dos grupos menos conhecidos do Reino animal e de posição filogenética obscura e controversa. Cerca de 180 espécies foram descritas mundialmente. Pequenos, transparentes e de hábitos crípticos, os entoproctos passam geralmente despercebidos, embora sejam relativamente comuns em substratos consolidados, como rochas, seixos, corais, conchas e algas, sendo comensais de muitas espécies de invertebrados, como esponjas, poliquetas, sipuncúlidos. São frequentemente encontrados dentro dos tubos e galerias de seus hospedeiros. Eles são muito parecidos com alguns briozoários e hidrozoários pelo aspecto geral e hábito. Os indivíduos são formados basicamente por uma região distal superior, denominada cálice e que possui uma coroa de tentáculos ciliados, e uma haste denominada pedúnculo, na qual o cálice é sustentado; o pedúnculo pode ser preso diretamente ao substrato através de uma estrutura dilatada, denominada pé e característico das espécies solitárias, ou através de estolões nas espécies coloniais.
embryo Organism in its early stages of development.
Egg mass of gastropod +
Egg mass of gastropod
gamete A mature sexual reproductive cell (sperm or egg)
juvenile Sexually immature organism that resembles an adult.
Juvenile sea biscuit after metamorphosis +
Juvenile sea biscuit after metamorphosis
Ossicles of the lantern of Aristotle in formation at the oral region.
larva Post-embryonic stage that usually differs from the adult stage in morphology, behavior, habitat, and others. Does not reproduce sexually.
Tornaria larva +
Tornaria larva
metamorphosis Change in shape and/or body structure that occurs between the larval and juvenile or adult.
Sea biscuit metamorphosis +
Sea biscuit metamorphosis
Polarized light highlights the calcareous skeleton showing the structure of spines, podia, and remnants of the larval skeleton.
paratomy
neriliidae polychaete +
neriliidae polychaete
progenesis
Polychaete dorvinelid +
Polychaete dorvinelid

Habitat

We also indicate the habitat of each organism whenever possible.

Habitat Description Example
artificial substrate
Starfish +
Starfish
Adulto em vista aboral - detalhe da superfície do corpo, detacando espinhos e pedicelárias.
baixio não vegetado
banco não vegetado
hard bottom
infralittoral Coastal region permanently submerged.
Epibiotic snail +
Epibiotic snail
intertidal Coastal region only exposed at low tide.
mangrove Transition zone between land and sea, dominated by a typical vegetation that grows in areas that are frequently inundated with salt and fresh water.
Bryozoan +
Bryozoan
Zoobotryum is common on the northern coast of São Paulo, especially in sheltered port areas. Their colonies are branched and whitish and resemble algae. It has been considered an invasive species in many parts of the world.
mesolitoral
rocky-shore Transition between marine and terrestrial environments formed by rocks.
sand beach Landform along the shoreline consisting sand, gravel, or pebbles.
soft bottom

Miscellaneous

Tags that do not fit into other categories. Could be common terms frequently searched.

Others Description Example
3d Image rendered in three dimensions.
3D projection of a sea biscuit pluteus larva 00:16 +
3D projection of a sea biscuit pluteus larva
Montagem de fotos de uma larva plúteos da bolacha-do-mar Clypeaster subdepressus mostrando sua tridimensionalidade.
alga Informal term for a diverse group of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms, including unicellular (microalgae) to multicellular forms, like kelps and sargassum.
Hydroid +
Hydroid
Colony on the green algae Caulerpa uvifera.
cebimar-usp Images produced at the Center for Marine Biology of the University of São Paulo (CEBIMar/USP).
Hidrozoário colonial flutuante, vista lateral - detalhe dos dactilozoóides +
Hidrozoário colonial flutuante, vista lateral - detalhe dos dactilozoóides
Porpita is a colonial hydrozoan which lives floating on the sea surface. The polyps are arranged concentrically on the lower surface of a hard, chitinous central disk. There is a large central polyp (gastrozooid) around of which are arranged numerous gastro-gonozoids, polyps responsible for food intake and production of jellyfish. The dactilozooids are the polyps responsible for capturing food and defense, being located more externally.
cnidarian tree of life project
Scyphopolyps +
Scyphopolyps
coral Marine invertebrates within the class Anthozoa of the phylum Cnidaria, colonial or not, which secrete a hard, calcium carbonate skeleton.
holotype The type specimen used in the original description of a species.
Bryozoan +
Bryozoan
Frontal view of a multiserial branch.
introduced species A species living outside its native distributional range.
invasive species Non-indigenous species, or "non-native", plants or animals that adversely affect the habitats and regions they invade.
Brittle star +
Brittle star
Invasive brittle star on octocoral host.
jellyfish Any of various gelatinous aquatic organisms, particularly the medusa stage of cnidarians.
Hydromedusa +
Hydromedusa
medusoid a reduced or vestigial medusa
Hydroid +
Hydroid
Hydranths.
neotype
paratype The type specimen used in the original description of a species.
recruitment plate
risk of extinction A species that is likely to become extinct in the near future.
Budião azul, peixe-papagaio +
Budião azul, peixe-papagaio
seto marine biological laboratory
Cubozoan +
Cubozoan
Male medusa - oral view.
symbiosis Organism living with, on, or in another, without injury to either.
Symbiotic copepod associated with a planktonic invertebrate +
Symbiotic copepod associated with a planktonic invertebrate
unicellular Organism having or consisting of a single cell.
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica +
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica