Cifonauta marine biology image database

Database organization

Cifonauta photos and videos can be searched by basic information (metadata), such as species, place, author, size, etc. These tags organized by categories like photographic technique, life stage, habitat, etc, provides a more informative and interesting navigation. For example, you might want to look for dark-field crustacean larvae photos, or just browse through the adult forms of planktonik organisms. Image categorization and a description for each tag (with a random example) is below.

Taxa

The taxonomic information in this site does not adopt any particular classification scheme and is built automatically from ITIS database. From the taxon name (contained in the image) we can retrieve its full taxonomic hierarchy and generate a simple tree for browsing. Therefore, the classification might not be in accordance with latest findings of each area; it reflects, almost strictly, the data from ITIS. Only in some cases we employ the phylogeny proposed by the author (or expert) that identified the species.

Size

We arbitrarily created 5 classes of sizes to provide an idea of organisms' dimensions. Benthic fauna received additional size information: macrofauna, meiofauna e microfauna (see item Life mode, below). Landscape/habitat photos do not hold size information, but if they are showing an specific organism (barnacles on rocky shore, for example) a size class is provided. Size classes are:

Size Description Example
<0,1 mm
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica +
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica
0,1 - 1,0 mm
1,0 - 10 mm
Comb jelly or ctenophore +
Comb jelly or ctenophore
10 - 100 mm
Sea anemone +
Sea anemone
>100 mm
Balanoglossus gigas +
Balanoglossus gigas
"A classe Enteropneusta engloba espécies solitárias, de corpo vermiforme, comumente alcançando mais de 1 metro de comprimento. Habitam, preferencialmente, fundos rasos, sendo 5 espécies registradas em São Paulo. Balanoglossus gigas, uma das maiores espécies do grupo, podendo atingir 2,5 metros de comprimento, está potencialmente ameaçada no litoral de São Paulo, devido à poluição das águas e do sedimento e ao assoreamento e aterramento das praias." (Rodrigues, 1999). Os excrementos de B. gigas são facilmente visualizados na superfiície descoberta da Baía do Araçá durante as marés baixas.

Photographic techniques

Different techniques used to capture the dataase images were divided in 4 categories.: submarine, macrophotography, landscape/seascape e microscopy. To embrace the variety of microscopy techiniques the latter was subdivided. This is the list of tags related to photographic techniques:

Technique Description Example
mev Scanning electron microscopy.
diving Photographs taken under water.
Peixe limpador neon +
Peixe limpador neon
Cleaning fish.
submarine
macrophotography Detail shot with a hand-held digital camera, usually of an organism in aquarium.
Mussel +
Mussel
Rocky-shore mussels.
landscape Depicts an environment.
Summit of São Sebastião +
Summit of São Sebastião
View of São Sebastião channel and Araçá bay.
microscopy
confocal Confocal microscopy.
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit +
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
polarized light Polarized light microscopy reveals birefringent structures.
Sea biscuit metamorphosis +
Sea biscuit metamorphosis
Luz polarizada realça o esqueleto calcário mostrando a estrutura dos espinhos, pés e remanescentes do esqueleto larval.
impregnação protargol Silver impregnation technique.
Epizoic ciliate +
Epizoic ciliate
dic Differential interference contrast microscopy.
Hydromedusa +
Hydromedusa
dark field Oblique illumination and dark field.
Hidrozoário colonial flutuante, vista aboral - detalhe da margem do disco central +
Hidrozoário colonial flutuante, vista aboral - detalhe da margem do disco central
A Porpita é um hidrozoário colonial que vive flutuando na superfície do mar. Os pólipos estão arranjados concentricamente na superfície inferior de um disco central quitinoso. Há um pólipo grande central (gastrozoóide) e ao seu redor inúmeros gastro-gonozoóides, que são responsáveis pela ingestão de alimento e produção de medusas. Mais externamente, se distribuem os pólipos responsáveis pela captura de alimento e defesa, os dactilozoóides.
bright field Diffuse illumination.
Peritrichian ciliate +
Peritrichian ciliate

Life stage

The organisms photographed are not always adults.

Stage Description Example
larva Post-embryonic stage that usually differs from the adult form in morphology, behavior, habitat, and others. Does not reproduce sexually.
Feather star +
Feather star
Pentacrinoid larva of a feather star on a hydroid (Eudendrium carneum).
gamete A mature sexual reproductive cell (sperm or egg)
Sea urchin +
Sea urchin
progenesis
Polychaete dorvinelid +
Polychaete dorvinelid
juvenile Sexually immature organism that resembles an adult.
Juvenile sea biscuit +
Juvenile sea biscuit
Aboral region (normal position).
paratomia
neriliidae polychaete +
neriliidae polychaete
metamorphosis Change in shape and/or body structure that occurs between the larval and juvenile or adult.
Sea biscuit metamorphosis +
Sea biscuit metamorphosis
Durante a regressão dos tecidos larvais. Espículas do esqueleto da larva ainda estão presentes na região aboral.
embryo Organism in its early stages of development.
Sea cucumber +
Sea cucumber
First cleavage
adult Sexually mature organism.
Nudibranch (sea slug) associated with a bryozoan +
Nudibranch (sea slug) associated with a bryozoan

Life mode

Each life stage of an organism may have a different way of life. Therefore, this classification refers to the lifestyle depicted in the image.

Pelagic Organisms living in the water column. Example
planctotrófica Feeding larva.
Zoea larva +
Zoea larva
pleustonic Organisms floating in the water surface.
Portuguese man-of-war +
Portuguese man-of-war
pelagic Organisms living in the water column.
Scyphozoan +
Scyphozoan
Adult medusa.
phytoplankton Any of numerous groups of aquatic, autotrophic organisms ranging from microscopic single-celled forms to multicellular ones, distinguished from plants by the absence of true roots, stems, and leaves.
Dinoflagelate +
Dinoflagelate
nektonic Living dispersed in the water column, but capable of swimming.
planktonic Drifting organisms that inhabit the water column.
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica +
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica
Benthic Organisms living on or in the sea bottom. Example
benthic Organisms living on or in the sea bottom.
Sea pen (Pennatulacea) +
Sea pen (Pennatulacea)

Habitat

We also indicate the habitat of each organism whenever possible.

Habitat Description Example
banco não vegetado
Nematoda +
Nematoda
Musculatura.
mesolitoral
Nematoda +
Nematoda
Boca com dente.
substrato artificial
Hydroid +
Hydroid
Cnidocílios, tentáculo, 10000x
baixio não vegetado
Nematoda +
Nematoda
Cauda / Espícula.
intertidal Coastal region only exposed at low tide.
Saccocirid polychaete +
Saccocirid polychaete
interface
Raia +
Raia
mangrove Transition zone between land and sea, dominated by a typical vegetation that grows in areas that are frequently inundated with salt and fresh water.
Crested caracara +
Crested caracara
Gavião-carcará é um predador generalista. No litoral de São Sebastião é visto alimentando-se de caranguejos e outros invertebrados marinhos.
hard bottom
rocky-shore Transition between marine and terrestrial environments formed by rocks.
Hydroid +
Hydroid
Polyp with medusa bud.
sand beach Landform along the shoreline consisting sand, gravel, or pebbles.
Hidróide, hidromedusa +
Hidróide, hidromedusa
Polyp attached to the mantle of the bivalve Tivela.
soft bottom
Gastrotrich +
Gastrotrich
infralittoral Permanently submersed coastal area.
Epizoic ciliate +
Epizoic ciliate
Hydranths heavily infested with ciliates.

Miscellaneous

Tags that do not fit into other categories. Could be common terms frequently searched.

Others Description Example
introduced species A species living outside its native distributional range.
neotype
paratype The type specimen used in the original description of a species.
holótipo The type specimen used in the original description of a species.
Bryozoan +
Bryozoan
Detail of an autozooid
medusoid
Hydroid +
Hydroid
Hydranths.
invasive species Non-indigenous species, or "non-native", plants or animals that adversely affect the habitats and regions they invade.
Brittle star +
Brittle star
Invasive brittle star on octocoral host.
recruitment plate
coral
Fire coral +
Fire coral
Extremidade de um ramo mostrando gastrozoóides e dactilozoóides. Parte de colônia mantida em laboratório.
alga
Hydroid +
Hydroid
Colony on a red algae.
unicellular Organism having or consisting of a single cell.
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica +
Tintinnid with hyaline lorica
ameaçada de extinção
Baiacu-mirim +
Baiacu-mirim
Pufferfish.
seto marine biological laboratory
Freshwater hydromedusa +
Freshwater hydromedusa
cnidarian tree of life project
Cubozoan +
Cubozoan
Male and female medusae - mating behaviour.
symbiosis Organism living with, on, or in another, without injury to either.
Nudibranch (sea slug) associated with a bryozoan +
Nudibranch (sea slug) associated with a bryozoan
água-viva Any of various gelatinous aquatic organisms, particularly the medusa stage of cnidarians.
Scyphozoan +
Scyphozoan
Adult medusa.
cebimar-usp Images produced at the Center for Marine Biology of the University of São Paulo (CEBIMar/USP).
Auricularia larva of the sea cucumber +
Auricularia larva of the sea cucumber