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The life cycle of an echinoderm RSS

Sea biscuit metamorphosis
Sea biscuit metamorphosis
Durante a regressão dos tecidos larvais. Espículas do esqueleto da larva ainda estão presentes na região aboral.

Sea biscuit metamorphosis

Durante a regressão dos tecidos larvais. Espículas do esqueleto da larva ainda estão presentes na região aboral.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: larva, juvenile, metamorphosis, dic, benthic
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: planctotrófica, larva, dic, planktonic
Juvenile sea biscuit
Juvenile sea biscuit
Oral region with the lantern of Aristotle in formation.

Juvenile sea biscuit

Oral region with the lantern of Aristotle in formation.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: polarized light, juvenile, benthic
Juvenile sea biscuit
Juvenile sea biscuit
Aboral region (normal position).

Juvenile sea biscuit

Aboral region (normal position).

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: juvenile, dark field, benthic
Juvenile sea biscuit
Juvenile sea biscuit
Lantern of Aristotle in the oral region.

Juvenile sea biscuit

Lantern of Aristotle in the oral region.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: polarized light, juvenile, benthic
Juvenile sea biscuit
Juvenile sea biscuit
Aboral surface (opposite to mouth).

Juvenile sea biscuit

Aboral surface (opposite to mouth).

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: polarized light, juvenile, benthic
Embryo with 8 cells
Embryo with 8 cells

Embryo with 8 cells

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Growth of antero-lateral pair of arms (2nd pair).

Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Growth of antero-lateral pair of arms (2nd pair).

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: planctotrófica, larva, dic, planktonic
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: planctotrófica, larva, polarized light, planktonic
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: planctotrófica, larva, dic, planktonic
Embryo with 16 cells
Embryo with 16 cells
View of the animal pole.

Embryo with 16 cells

View of the animal pole.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo
Second cell division
Second cell division

Second cell division

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo
Embryo with 4 cells
Embryo with 4 cells

Embryo with 4 cells

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo
Second cell division
Second cell division

Second cell division

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo
Archenteron of prism larva
Archenteron of prism larva

Archenteron of prism larva

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: larva, dic, embryo, planktonic
Juvenile sea biscuit
Juvenile sea biscuit
Anus on the juvenile aboral surface (red curved structure).

Juvenile sea biscuit

Anus on the juvenile aboral surface (red curved structure).

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: juvenile, dic, benthic
Sea biscuit metamorphosis
Sea biscuit metamorphosis
Luz polarizada realça o esqueleto calcário mostrando a estrutura dos espinhos, pés e remanescentes do esqueleto larval.

Sea biscuit metamorphosis

Luz polarizada realça o esqueleto calcário mostrando a estrutura dos espinhos, pés e remanescentes do esqueleto larval.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: larva, polarized light, juvenile, metamorphosis, benthic
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Estágio com 3 pares de braços e invaginação do vestíbulo do lado esquerdo.

Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Estágio com 3 pares de braços e invaginação do vestíbulo do lado esquerdo.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: planctotrófica, larva, dic, planktonic
Embryo with 16 cells
Embryo with 16 cells
Micromere positioning at the vegetal pole.

Embryo with 16 cells

Micromere positioning at the vegetal pole.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo
Embryo with 8 cells
Embryo with 8 cells

Embryo with 8 cells

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo
Embryo with 32 cells
Embryo with 32 cells

Embryo with 32 cells

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo
Juvenile sea biscuit
Juvenile sea biscuit
Oral region.

Juvenile sea biscuit

Oral region.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: juvenile, dic, benthic
Juvenile sea biscuit after metamorphosis
Juvenile sea biscuit after metamorphosis

Juvenile sea biscuit after metamorphosis

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: juvenile, dark field, benthic
Embryo during blastula formation
Embryo during blastula formation

Embryo during blastula formation

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo
Embryo during blastula formation
Embryo during blastula formation

Embryo during blastula formation

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Par de celomas se desenvolvendo junto do tubo digestivo no estágio inicial com 2 braços.

Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Par de celomas se desenvolvendo junto do tubo digestivo no estágio inicial com 2 braços.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: planctotrófica, larva, dic, planktonic
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: planctotrófica, larva, polarized light, planktonic
Calcareous spicule
Calcareous spicule
Skeleton being secreted by primary mesenchymal cells.

Calcareous spicule

Skeleton being secreted by primary mesenchymal cells.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: <0,1 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo, planktonic
Juvenile sea biscuit
Juvenile sea biscuit
Ambulacral feet and spines.

Juvenile sea biscuit

Ambulacral feet and spines.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: juvenile, dic, benthic
Juvenile sea biscuit after metamorphosis
Juvenile sea biscuit after metamorphosis
Ossicles of the lantern of Aristotle in formation at the oral region.

Juvenile sea biscuit after metamorphosis

Ossicles of the lantern of Aristotle in formation at the oral region.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: polarized light, juvenile, benthic
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Coelomic sacs in a two-arm pluteus larva.

Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Coelomic sacs in a two-arm pluteus larva.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: planctotrófica, larva, dic, planktonic
Ectodermic cells during blastula formation
Ectodermic cells during blastula formation

Ectodermic cells during blastula formation

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo
Embryo with 16 cells
Embryo with 16 cells
Lateral view showing the position of micromeres.

Embryo with 16 cells

Lateral view showing the position of micromeres.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo
Embryo with 2 cells
Embryo with 2 cells

Embryo with 2 cells

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo
Embryo with 32 cells
Embryo with 32 cells

Embryo with 32 cells

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo
Embryo with 1 cell
Embryo with 1 cell

Embryo with 1 cell

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Larva with six arms.

Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Larva with six arms.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: planctotrófica, larva, dark field, planktonic
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Larva with six arms.

Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Larva with six arms.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: planctotrófica, larva, dic, planktonic
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: planctotrófica, larva, polarized light, planktonic
Gastrula
Gastrula
Archenteron during invagination.

Gastrula

Archenteron during invagination.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo, planktonic
First cleavage
First cleavage

First cleavage

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo
Juvenile sea biscuit
Juvenile sea biscuit
Ossicles of the lantern of Aristotle in formation at the oral region.

Juvenile sea biscuit

Ossicles of the lantern of Aristotle in formation at the oral region.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: polarized light, juvenile, benthic
Embryo before the second division
Embryo before the second division

Embryo before the second division

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo
Ovules
Ovules

Ovules

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: gamete, dic
Sperm
Sperm

Sperm

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: gamete, dic
Sea biscuit gamete release (spawning)
Sea biscuit gamete release (spawning)
Adult specimen releasing sperm in the laboratory.

Sea biscuit gamete release (spawning)

Adult specimen releasing sperm in the laboratory.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: >100 mm
Place: São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: macrophotography, adult, benthic
Blastula during hatching
Blastula during hatching

Blastula during hatching

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo, planktonic
Embryo with 108 cells
Embryo with 108 cells

Embryo with 108 cells

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: dic, embryo
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Larva with six arms.

Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Larva with six arms.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: planctotrófica, larva, dark field, planktonic
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: planctotrófica, larva, dark field, planktonic
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit
Larva com 2 pares de braços e início do desenvolvimento dos braços postero-dorsais na lateral do corpo.

Pluteus larva of a sea biscuit

Larva com 2 pares de braços e início do desenvolvimento dos braços postero-dorsais na lateral do corpo.

Author: Bruno C. Vellutini
Taxa: Clypeaster subdepressus
Size: 0,1 - 1,0 mm
Place: CEBIMar, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: planctotrófica, larva, dic, planktonic

The life cycle of an echinoderm

<p>In this tour you can follow the life stages of the sea biscuit <em>Clypeaster subdepressus</em>. This echinoderm is related to sea urchins, but its body is flattened and it lives semi-buried in sand beds.</p> <p>Embryos and larvae were raised in the laboratory at CEBIMar and photographed until they become juveniles. To accomplish that we collected adults from São Sebastião Channel (São Sebastião, SP, Brasil) and induced the release of gametes (ova and sperm). We conducted an <em>in vitro</em> fertilization and documented embryo development under light microscopy.</p> <p>After a few hours of cell divisions embryos became swimming larvae (pluteus), approximately 0.2 mm wide, which were fed with microalgae until metamorphosis. Inside the larva a small sea biscuit begins to grow. When the first podia and spines are formed the larva sinks to the bottom and goes through metamorphosis. The juvenile sea biscuit reabsorbs the larval tissues and begins to explore the new habitat between sand grains.</p>

Fact sheet

References

2010 Vellutini BC, Migotto AE. Embryonic, larval, and juvenile development of the sea biscuit Clypeaster subdepressus (Echinodermata: Clypeasteroida). PLoS ONE, 5(3): e9654, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009654, pmid:20339592, url:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20339592