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Sand dollar
Sand dollar
The sand dollar Encope emarginata is found on soft sediments in the intertidal and subtidal zones

Sand dollar

The sand dollar Encope emarginata is found on soft sediments in the intertidal and subtidal zones

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Encope emarginata
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, adult, sand beach
Crested caracara
Crested caracara
The crested caracara is a bird of prey with a varied diet including crabs and other invertebrates.

Crested caracara

The crested caracara is a bird of prey with a varied diet including crabs and other invertebrates.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Caracara plancus
Size: >100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, sand beach
Fire worm
Fire worm
The fire-worms are benthic animals that live under rocks and among other marine organisms; they have white, numerous, and large bristles that may cause skin irritation.

Fire worm

The fire-worms are benthic animals that live under rocks and among other marine organisms; they have white, numerous, and large bristles that may cause skin irritation.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Eurythoe complanata
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, cebimar-usp, adult, infauna
Nudibranch (sea slug)
Nudibranch (sea slug)
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Nudibranch (sea slug)

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Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Trapania
Size: 1.0 - 10 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, dark-field, adult, rocky-shore
Bryozoan
Bryozoan
Zoobotryum is common on the northern coast of São Paulo, especially in sheltered port areas. Their colonies are branched and whitish and resemble algae. It has been considered an invasive species in many parts of the world.

Bryozoan

Zoobotryum is common on the northern coast of São Paulo, especially in sheltered port areas. Their colonies are branched and whitish and resemble algae. It has been considered an invasive species in many parts of the world.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Zoobotryon verticillatum
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, mangrove, sand beach, rocky-shore
Entoprocta
Entoprocta
The Entoprocta (= Kamptozoa) comprise a phylum of solitary and colonial sessile animals, one of the least-known groups of the Animal kingdom and whose phylogenetic position is unclear and controversial. About 180 species have been described worldwide. Small, transparent and of cryptic habits, the Entoprocta are usually inconspicuous, although they are relatively common on hard substrates such as rocks, pebbles, corals, shells, and algae. They live as commensals of many species of invertebrates such as sponges, polychaetes, and sipunculans, often being found inside the tubes and galleries of their hosts. Closely resembling some bryozoans and hydrozoans in the general appearance and habit, they consist mainly of a distal region, called calyx, which contains a crown of ciliated tentacles, and a stem or stalk, which sustain the calyx and attaches it to the substrate through a dilated structure, characteristic of solitary species, or by stolons in colonial species.

Entoprocta

The Entoprocta (= Kamptozoa) comprise a phylum of solitary and colonial sessile animals, one of the least-known groups of the Animal kingdom and whose phylogenetic position is unclear and controversial. About 180 species have been described worldwide. Small, transparent and of cryptic habits, the Entoprocta are usually inconspicuous, although they are relatively common on hard substrates such as rocks, pebbles, corals, shells, and algae. They live as commensals of many species of invertebrates such as sponges, polychaetes, and sipunculans, often being found inside the tubes and galleries of their hosts. Closely resembling some bryozoans and hydrozoans in the general appearance and habit, they consist mainly of a distal region, called calyx, which contains a crown of ciliated tentacles, and a stem or stalk, which sustain the calyx and attaches it to the substrate through a dilated structure, characteristic of solitary species, or by stolons in colonial species.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Barentsia capitata
Size: 0.1 - 1.0 mm
Place: Praia de Barequeçaba, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, cebimar-usp, dark-field, adult, epibiotic, rocky-shore
Snail
Snail
The tiny snail Olivella minuta can form dense populations in sandy or sandy-muddy sediments. As it moves around during low tides this snail leaves a grooved trail behind.

Snail

The tiny snail Olivella minuta can form dense populations in sandy or sandy-muddy sediments. As it moves around during low tides this snail leaves a grooved trail behind.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Olivella minuta
Size: 1.0 - 10 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, adult, mangrove, sand beach, infauna
Worm
Worm
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Worm

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Authors: Alvaro E. Migotto, Fabiane Gallucci, Gustavo Fonseca, Maikon Di Domenico
Taxa: Oligochaeta
Size: 0.1 - 1.0 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, soft bottom, meiofauna, intertidal, cebimar-usp, dic
Kinorhynch
Kinorhynch
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Kinorhynch

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Authors: Alvaro E. Migotto, Fabiane Gallucci, Gustavo Fonseca, Maikon Di Domenico
Taxa: Kinorhyncha
Size: 0.1 - 1.0 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, soft bottom, meiofauna, intertidal, cebimar-usp
Summit of São Sebastião
Summit of São Sebastião
View of São Sebastião channel and Araçá bay.

Summit of São Sebastião

View of São Sebastião channel and Araçá bay.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Place: Pico de São Sebastião, Ilhabela, SP, Brazil
Tag: landscape/seascape
Balanoglossus gigas
Balanoglossus gigas
Acorn worm (enteropneust) - marine burrowing wormlike invertebrate.

Balanoglossus gigas

Acorn worm (enteropneust) - marine burrowing wormlike invertebrate.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Balanoglossus gigas
Size: >100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: endangered, benthic, macrophotography, adult, mangrove, sand beach, infauna
Sponge
Sponge

Sponge

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Porifera
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, cebimar-usp, rocky-shore
Hermit crab
Hermit crab
Hermit crab.

Hermit crab

Hermit crab.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, epifauna, mangrove, sand beach
Tubiculous polychaete
Tubiculous polychaete
Diopatra tube on intertidal flat.

Tubiculous polychaete

Diopatra tube on intertidal flat.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Diopatra
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, macrophotography, adult, sand beach
Summit of São Sebastião
Summit of São Sebastião
View of São Sebastião channel and Araçá bay.

Summit of São Sebastião

View of São Sebastião channel and Araçá bay.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Place: Pico de São Sebastião, Ilhabela, SP, Brazil
Tag: landscape/seascape
Nudibranch (sea slug)
Nudibranch (sea slug)
The gastropod Lamellaria mopsicolor uses the ascidians of the family Didemnidae as food and as a place to incubate their eggs. They always mimic the color of the ascidian host.

Nudibranch (sea slug)

The gastropod Lamellaria mopsicolor uses the ascidians of the family Didemnidae as food and as a place to incubate their eggs. They always mimic the color of the ascidian host.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Lamellaria mopsicolor
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, macrophotography, cebimar-usp, symbiosis, dark-field, adult
Sea slug
Sea slug

Sea slug

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Aplysia brasiliana
Size: 1.0 - 10 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, cebimar-usp, dark-field, adult, epibiotic, rocky-shore
Nudibranch (sea slug)
Nudibranch (sea slug)

Nudibranch (sea slug)

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Spurilla neapolitana
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, cebimar-usp, macrofauna, adult, rocky-shore
Entoprocta
Entoprocta
The Entoprocta (= Kamptozoa) comprise a phylum of solitary and colonial sessile animals, one of the least-known groups of the Animal kingdom and whose phylogenetic position is unclear and controversial. About 180 species have been described worldwide. Small, transparent and of cryptic habits, the Entoprocta are usually inconspicuous, although they are relatively common on hard substrates such as rocks, pebbles, corals, shells, and algae. They live as commensals of many species of invertebrates such as sponges, polychaetes, and sipunculans, often being found inside the tubes and galleries of their hosts. Closely resembling some bryozoans and hydrozoans in the general appearance and habit, they consist mainly of a distal region, called calyx, which contains a crown of ciliated tentacles, and a stem or stalk, which sustain the calyx and attaches it to the substrate through a dilated structure, characteristic of solitary species, or by stolons in colonial species.

Entoprocta

The Entoprocta (= Kamptozoa) comprise a phylum of solitary and colonial sessile animals, one of the least-known groups of the Animal kingdom and whose phylogenetic position is unclear and controversial. About 180 species have been described worldwide. Small, transparent and of cryptic habits, the Entoprocta are usually inconspicuous, although they are relatively common on hard substrates such as rocks, pebbles, corals, shells, and algae. They live as commensals of many species of invertebrates such as sponges, polychaetes, and sipunculans, often being found inside the tubes and galleries of their hosts. Closely resembling some bryozoans and hydrozoans in the general appearance and habit, they consist mainly of a distal region, called calyx, which contains a crown of ciliated tentacles, and a stem or stalk, which sustain the calyx and attaches it to the substrate through a dilated structure, characteristic of solitary species, or by stolons in colonial species.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Pedicellina cernua
Size: 0.1 - 1.0 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, cebimar-usp, dark-field, adult, epibiotic, rocky-shore
microcrustacean in lateral view
microcrustacean in lateral view
The tanaid Kalliapseudes is abundant in the bay of Araçá and is commonly found in estuaries and sandy-muddy tidal flats of the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. It builds galleries in the substrate and feeds on particulate matter brought by water flow.

microcrustacean in lateral view

The tanaid Kalliapseudes is abundant in the bay of Araçá and is commonly found in estuaries and sandy-muddy tidal flats of the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. It builds galleries in the substrate and feeds on particulate matter brought by water flow.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Kalliapseudes schubarti
Size: 1.0 - 10 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, soft bottom, macrophotography, intertidal, cebimar-usp, macrofauna
microcrustacean in lateral view
microcrustacean in lateral view
The tanaid Kalliapseudes is abundant in the bay of Araçá and is commonly found in estuaries and sandy-muddy tidal flats of the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. It builds galleries in the substrate and feeds on particulate matter brought by water flow.

microcrustacean in lateral view

The tanaid Kalliapseudes is abundant in the bay of Araçá and is commonly found in estuaries and sandy-muddy tidal flats of the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. It builds galleries in the substrate and feeds on particulate matter brought by water flow.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Kalliapseudes schubarti
Size: 1.0 - 10 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, soft bottom, macrophotography, intertidal, cebimar-usp, macrofauna
Kinorhynch
Kinorhynch
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Kinorhynch

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Authors: Alvaro E. Migotto, Fabiane Gallucci, Gustavo Fonseca, Maikon Di Domenico
Taxa: Kinorhyncha
Size: 0.1 - 1.0 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, soft bottom, meiofauna, intertidal, cebimar-usp
Sabellid polychaete
Sabellid polychaete
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Sabellid polychaete

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Authors: Alvaro E. Migotto, Maikon Di Domenico
Taxa: Syllidae
Size: 0.1 - 1.0 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, soft bottom, meiofauna, intertidal, cebimar-usp, dark-field
Sabellid polychaete
Sabellid polychaete
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Sabellid polychaete

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Authors: Alvaro E. Migotto, Maikon Di Domenico
Taxa: Eurinaceusyllis subterranea
Size: 0.1 - 1.0 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, soft bottom, meiofauna, intertidal, cebimar-usp, dic
Sponge
Sponge

Sponge

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Porifera
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, cebimar-usp, rocky-shore
Snail
Snail
Littoraria flava often occurs on rocky shores close to estuaries and mangroves. It is an ovoviviparous species, ant its life cycle includes a planktonic larval stage and a sedentary adult stage. In the Bay Araçá it usually forms large aggregates on rocks and mangrove roots.

Snail

Littoraria flava often occurs on rocky shores close to estuaries and mangroves. It is an ovoviviparous species, ant its life cycle includes a planktonic larval stage and a sedentary adult stage. In the Bay Araçá it usually forms large aggregates on rocks and mangrove roots.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Littorina flava
Size: 1.0 - 10 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, macrophotography, adult, mangrove, rocky-shore
Egret bird
Egret bird

Egret bird

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Ardeidae
Size: >100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, sand beach
Hydroid
Hydroid
Dynamena crisioides is one of the species restricted to intertidal habitats along tropical and subtropical coasts.

Hydroid

Dynamena crisioides is one of the species restricted to intertidal habitats along tropical and subtropical coasts.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Dynamena crisioides
Size: 1.0 - 10 mm
Place: Ponta do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, macrophotography, intertidal, cebimar-usp, rocky-shore
Hydroid
Hydroid
Gonotheca, 60x.

Hydroid

Gonotheca, 60x.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Sertularia marginata
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Ponta do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, cebimar-usp, sem, rocky-shore
Snail
Snail

Snail

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Neritina virginea
Size: 1.0 - 10 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, soft bottom, macrophotography, intertidal, macrofauna, adult
Sea cucumber
Sea cucumber
Adult specimen in dorsal view.

Sea cucumber

Adult specimen in dorsal view.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Holothuria grisea
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, macrophotography, cebimar-usp, adult, epifauna
Nudibranch (sea slug)
Nudibranch (sea slug)

Nudibranch (sea slug)

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Doris verrucosa
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, macrophotography, cebimar-usp, adult, rocky-shore
Sea slug associated with a bryozoan
Sea slug associated with a bryozoan

Sea slug associated with a bryozoan

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Aplysia brasiliana
Size: 1.0 - 10 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, cebimar-usp, dark-field, adult, epibiotic, rocky-shore
Echiuran
Echiuran
The Echiura, or spoon worms, have a pear shaped, non-segmented body and a large and non-retractile proboscis. In the anterior ventral region there is a pair of setae or hooks. They live in burrows in sand, mud, corals and coral crevices. Some species are found inside the tests of dead sand dollars and between the shells of dead bivalves. There is strong evidence that echiurans are in fact modified annelids.

Echiuran

The Echiura, or spoon worms, have a pear shaped, non-segmented body and a large and non-retractile proboscis. In the anterior ventral region there is a pair of setae or hooks. They live in burrows in sand, mud, corals and coral crevices. Some species are found inside the tests of dead sand dollars and between the shells of dead bivalves. There is strong evidence that echiurans are in fact modified annelids.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Lissomyema exilii
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, soft bottom, macrophotography, intertidal, cebimar-usp, adult
Marks made by the bivalve Macoma into the sand and mud bottom
Marks made by the bivalve Macoma into the sand and mud bottom
Orifice through which the inhalant siphon of the bivalve is extended, and star-shaped marks left on the sediment its retraction.

Marks made by the bivalve Macoma into the sand and mud bottom

Orifice through which the inhalant siphon of the bivalve is extended, and star-shaped marks left on the sediment its retraction.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Macoma constricta
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, soft bottom, macrophotography, intertidal, macrofauna, adult
Snail on white mangrove roots
Snail on white mangrove roots

Snail on white mangrove roots

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Littorina angulifera
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, macrophotography, intertidal, adult, hard bottom, mangrove
Sabellid polychaete
Sabellid polychaete
.

Sabellid polychaete

.

Authors: Alvaro E. Migotto, Maikon Di Domenico
Taxa: Eurinaceusyllis subterranea
Size: 0.1 - 1.0 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, soft bottom, meiofauna, intertidal, cebimar-usp, dark-field
Sand dollar
Sand dollar
The sand dollar Encope emarginata is found on soft sediments in the intertidal and subtidal zones

Sand dollar

The sand dollar Encope emarginata is found on soft sediments in the intertidal and subtidal zones

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Encope emarginata
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, adult, sand beach
Crested caracara
Crested caracara
The crested caracara is a bird of prey with a varied diet including crabs and other invertebrates.

Crested caracara

The crested caracara is a bird of prey with a varied diet including crabs and other invertebrates.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Caracara plancus
Size: >100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, sand beach
Fire worm
Fire worm
The fire-worms are benthic animals that live under rocks and among other marine organisms; they have white, numerous, and large bristles that may cause skin irritation.

Fire worm

The fire-worms are benthic animals that live under rocks and among other marine organisms; they have white, numerous, and large bristles that may cause skin irritation.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Eurythoe complanata
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, cebimar-usp, adult, infauna
Entoprocta
Entoprocta
The Entoprocta (= Kamptozoa) comprise a phylum of solitary and colonial sessile animals, one of the least-known groups of the Animal kingdom and whose phylogenetic position is unclear and controversial. About 180 species have been described worldwide. Small, transparent and of cryptic habits, the Entoprocta are usually inconspicuous, although they are relatively common on hard substrates such as rocks, pebbles, corals, shells, and algae. They live as commensals of many species of invertebrates such as sponges, polychaetes, and sipunculans, often being found inside the tubes and galleries of their hosts. Closely resembling some bryozoans and hydrozoans in the general appearance and habit, they consist mainly of a distal region, called calyx, which contains a crown of ciliated tentacles, and a stem or stalk, which sustain the calyx and attaches it to the substrate through a dilated structure, characteristic of solitary species, or by stolons in colonial species.

Entoprocta

The Entoprocta (= Kamptozoa) comprise a phylum of solitary and colonial sessile animals, one of the least-known groups of the Animal kingdom and whose phylogenetic position is unclear and controversial. About 180 species have been described worldwide. Small, transparent and of cryptic habits, the Entoprocta are usually inconspicuous, although they are relatively common on hard substrates such as rocks, pebbles, corals, shells, and algae. They live as commensals of many species of invertebrates such as sponges, polychaetes, and sipunculans, often being found inside the tubes and galleries of their hosts. Closely resembling some bryozoans and hydrozoans in the general appearance and habit, they consist mainly of a distal region, called calyx, which contains a crown of ciliated tentacles, and a stem or stalk, which sustain the calyx and attaches it to the substrate through a dilated structure, characteristic of solitary species, or by stolons in colonial species.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Barentsia discreta
Size: 0.1 - 1.0 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, cebimar-usp, dark-field, adult, epibiotic, rocky-shore
Tubiculous polychaete
Tubiculous polychaete

Tubiculous polychaete

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Diopatra aciculata
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, soft bottom, macrophotography, intertidal, cebimar-usp, macrofauna, adult
Polychaete
Polychaete

Polychaete

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxon: Chaetopterus, Zoobotryon verticillatum
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, soft bottom, macrophotography, intertidal, cebimar, macrofauna
Bryozoan
Bryozoan

Bryozoan

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Beania klugei
Size: 1.0 - 10 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, cebimar-usp, dark-field, adult
Clam
Clam

Clam

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Macoma constricta
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, soft bottom, macrophotography, intertidal, macrofauna, adult
Scale worm - detail of a scale (elytrum)
Scale worm - detail of a scale (elytrum)

Scale worm - detail of a scale (elytrum)

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Polynoidae
Size: 1.0 - 10 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, intertidal, cebimar-usp, macrofauna, dark-field, adult, hard bottom, rocky-shore
Scale worm
Scale worm

Scale worm

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Polynoidae
Size: 1.0 - 10 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, macrophotography, intertidal, cebimar-usp, macrofauna, adult, hard bottom, rocky-shore
Clams
Clams

Clams

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Chione
Size: 1.0 - 10 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, macrophotography, adult, sand beach
Tubiculous polychaete
Tubiculous polychaete
Sabellid polychaete.

Tubiculous polychaete

Sabellid polychaete.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Branchiomma luctuosum
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: invasive species, benthic, macrophotography, cebimar-usp, adult, sand beach
Tubiculous polychaete
Tubiculous polychaete
Sabellid polychaete.

Tubiculous polychaete

Sabellid polychaete.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Branchiomma luctuosum
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: invasive species, macrophotography, cebimar-usp, sand beach, benthic, adult
Nudibranch (sea slug)
Nudibranch (sea slug)

Nudibranch (sea slug)

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Doris kyolis
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, macrophotography, cebimar-usp, adult, epibiotic, rocky-shore
Brittle star
Brittle star

Brittle star

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Ophiothrix
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, soft bottom, cebimar-usp, dark-field, adult
Fire worm
Fire worm
The fire-worms are benthic animals that live under rocks and among other marine organisms; they have white, numerous, and large bristles that may cause skin irritation.

Fire worm

The fire-worms are benthic animals that live under rocks and among other marine organisms; they have white, numerous, and large bristles that may cause skin irritation.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Eurythoe complanata
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, cebimar-usp, adult, infauna
Entoprocta
Entoprocta
The Entoprocta (= Kamptozoa) comprise a phylum of solitary and colonial sessile animals, one of the least-known groups of the Animal kingdom and whose phylogenetic position is unclear and controversial. About 180 species have been described worldwide. Small, transparent and of cryptic habits, the Entoprocta are usually inconspicuous, although they are relatively common on hard substrates such as rocks, pebbles, corals, shells, and algae. They live as commensals of many species of invertebrates such as sponges, polychaetes, and sipunculans, often being found inside the tubes and galleries of their hosts. Closely resembling some bryozoans and hydrozoans in the general appearance and habit, they consist mainly of a distal region, called calyx, which contains a crown of ciliated tentacles, and a stem or stalk, which sustain the calyx and attaches it to the substrate through a dilated structure, characteristic of solitary species, or by stolons in colonial species.

Entoprocta

The Entoprocta (= Kamptozoa) comprise a phylum of solitary and colonial sessile animals, one of the least-known groups of the Animal kingdom and whose phylogenetic position is unclear and controversial. About 180 species have been described worldwide. Small, transparent and of cryptic habits, the Entoprocta are usually inconspicuous, although they are relatively common on hard substrates such as rocks, pebbles, corals, shells, and algae. They live as commensals of many species of invertebrates such as sponges, polychaetes, and sipunculans, often being found inside the tubes and galleries of their hosts. Closely resembling some bryozoans and hydrozoans in the general appearance and habit, they consist mainly of a distal region, called calyx, which contains a crown of ciliated tentacles, and a stem or stalk, which sustain the calyx and attaches it to the substrate through a dilated structure, characteristic of solitary species, or by stolons in colonial species.

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Barentsia discreta
Size: 0.1 - 1.0 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, cebimar-usp, dark-field, adult, epibiotic, rocky-shore
Tubiculous polychaete
Tubiculous polychaete

Tubiculous polychaete

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Diopatra aciculata
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, soft bottom, macrophotography, intertidal, cebimar-usp, macrofauna, adult
Polychaete
Polychaete

Polychaete

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxon: Chaetopterus, Zoobotryon verticillatum
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, soft bottom, macrophotography, intertidal, cebimar, macrofauna
Bryozoan
Bryozoan

Bryozoan

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Beania klugei
Size: 1.0 - 10 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, cebimar-usp, dark-field, adult
Clam
Clam

Clam

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Macoma constricta
Size: 10 - 100 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, soft bottom, macrophotography, intertidal, macrofauna, adult
Scale worm - detail of a scale (elytrum)
Scale worm - detail of a scale (elytrum)

Scale worm - detail of a scale (elytrum)

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Polynoidae
Size: 1.0 - 10 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, intertidal, cebimar-usp, macrofauna, dark-field, adult, hard bottom, rocky-shore
Scale worm
Scale worm

Scale worm

Author: Alvaro E. Migotto
Taxa: Polynoidae
Size: 1.0 - 10 mm
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, macrophotography, intertidal, cebimar-usp, macrofauna, adult, hard bottom, rocky-shore
  • Sand dollar
  • Crested caracara
  • Fire worm
  • Nudibranch (sea slug)
  • Bryozoan
  • Entoprocta
  • Snail
  • Worm
  • Kinorhynch
  • Summit of São Sebastião
  • Balanoglossus gigas
  • Sponge
  • Hermit crab
  • Tubiculous polychaete
  • Summit of São Sebastião
  • Nudibranch (sea slug)
  • Sea slug
  • Nudibranch (sea slug)
  • Entoprocta
  • microcrustacean in lateral view
  • microcrustacean in lateral view
  • Kinorhynch
  • Sabellid polychaete
  • Sabellid polychaete
  • Sponge
  • Snail
  • Egret bird
  • Hydroid
  • Hydroid
  • Snail
  • Sea cucumber
  • Nudibranch (sea slug)
  • Sea slug associated with a bryozoan
  • Echiuran
  • Marks made by the bivalve Macoma into the sand and mud bottom
  • Snail on white mangrove roots
  • Sabellid polychaete
  • Sand dollar
  • Crested caracara
  • Fire worm
  • Entoprocta
  • Tubiculous polychaete
  • Polychaete
  • Bryozoan
  • Clam
  • Scale worm - detail of a scale (elytrum)
  • Scale worm
  • Clams
  • Tubiculous polychaete
  • Tubiculous polychaete
  • Nudibranch (sea slug)
  • Brittle star
  • Fire worm
  • Entoprocta
  • Tubiculous polychaete
  • Polychaete
  • Bryozoan
  • Clam
  • Scale worm - detail of a scale (elytrum)
  • Scale worm

Araçá Bay

The Araçá Bay (São Sebastião, State of São Paulo), within one of Brazil’s most beautiful coastlines, has small relict mangrove stands and a very diverse marine ecosystem. As such, the bay is a natural laboratory as well as important for local small-scale fishing.

Considered a natural area for expansion of the port of São Sebastião, the Araçá bay almost disappeared from the landscape. In 1987, the filling project of the bay was prevented by pressure from environmentalists and the scientific community. A year later, the bay was dredged for the placement of a sewage outfall, which caused profound ecological damage, habitat destruction, and death of organisms. For twenty years the sewage generated in the central region of the municipality was dumped in the vicinity of Araçá through this outfall, which remains operating without an environmental license. Moreover, the growing urbanization contributes to the environmental impacts on the bay, increasing the amount of waste and sewage dumped. In 2008, the threat of filling the remainder of the Araçá Bay was announced again.

However, although polluted and depleted, the Araçá insists to show vitality. Marine species that had disappeared as a result of the dredging reappeared several years after this ecological crime. Herons and spoonbills are seen more often in the shallow and muddy waters of the bay.

While far from its pristine condition, which partly motivated the creation of CEBIMar in the 1950s, the Araçá remains a place for studying and teaching. It is one of the most unique coastal marine environments - one of the few mangroves in the coast of São Sebastião, which harbors high biodiversity. 733 species were recorded for the area of which 34 were described as new to science, many have not been found elsewhere. In the list there are endangered species of polychaetes, echinoderms and hemichordates. Being a mangrove area, several marine species common to the region spend part of their life cycles in the bay, such as crustaceans and fish.

The Araçá is also home to species that are natural resources such as mollusks, shrimps and fish. Fishermen and shellfish gatherers take advantage of low tides to collect these resources for their own consumption or to market them in free markets.

The traditional knowledge and scientific data accumulated in more than 50 years of research show how the conservation of this region is important for science and for the lives of all who depend on it. Thus, there is an unquestionable need to protect species that insist on keeping the precious wealth of the bay of Araçá.

The reclamation of Araçá will not only destroy this complex ecosystem, the ecological damage will certainly not be restricted to the region. The rectification of the coastline will affect the dynamics of sedimentation in the channel, possibly causing siltation or erosion on nearby beaches. The desired sustainable relationship between tourism and environment rarely blooms in ports and industrial areas. São Sebastião has the responsibility to keep safe this fragile environmental heritage for the enjoyment of this and future generations.

References

2011 Felipelli T. Para Cetesb e prefeito de São Sebastião, Mangue do Araçá pode estar morto; ambientalistas apontam ao contrário. Imprensa Livre, url:http://www.imprensalivre.com.br/extras/top_impressao.php?edit=3&id=37874
2010 Amaral ACZ, Migotto AE, Turra A, Schaeffer-Novelli Y. Araçá: biodiversidade, impactos e ameaças. Biota Neotropica, 10(1): 219-264, url:http://www.scielo.br/pdf/bn/v10n1/a22v10n1.pdf