Cifonauta

marine biology image database

Tour:

Araçá Bay

Crested caracara
Crested caracara
The crested caracara is a bird of prey with a varied diet including crabs and other invertebrates.

Crested caracara

The crested caracara is a bird of prey with a varied diet including crabs and other invertebrates.

Taxa: Caracara plancus
Size: huge
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: >100 mm, mangrove, sand beach
Crested caracara
Crested caracara
The crested caracara is a bird of prey with a varied diet including crabs and other invertebrates.

Crested caracara

The crested caracara is a bird of prey with a varied diet including crabs and other invertebrates.

Taxa: Caracara plancus
Size: huge
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: >100 mm, mangrove, sand beach
Black Skimmer
Black Skimmer
The black skimmer flies very close to the water, with the lower beak cutting the water surface.

Black Skimmer

The black skimmer flies very close to the water, with the lower beak cutting the water surface.

Taxa: Rynchops niger
Size: huge
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: >100 mm, mangrove, sand beach
Crested caracara
Crested caracara
The crested caracara is a bird of prey with a varied diet including crabs and other invertebrates.

Crested caracara

The crested caracara is a bird of prey with a varied diet including crabs and other invertebrates.

Taxa: Caracara plancus
Size: huge
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: >100 mm, mangrove, sand beach
Egret bird
Egret bird

Egret bird

Taxa: Ardeidae
Size: huge
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: >100 mm, mangrove, sand beach
Great kiskadee
Great kiskadee
The Great Kiskadee is an omnivorous bird, catching insects, fruits and small vertebrates (fishes) and invertebrates at the sea shore.

Great kiskadee

The Great Kiskadee is an omnivorous bird, catching insects, fruits and small vertebrates (fishes) and invertebrates at the sea shore.

Taxa: Pitangus sulphuratus
Size: huge
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: >100 mm, mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Black vulture
Black vulture

Black vulture

Taxa: Coragyps atratus
Size: huge
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: >100 mm, mangrove
Black Skimmer
Black Skimmer
The black skimmer flies very close to the water, with the lower beak cutting the water surface.

Black Skimmer

The black skimmer flies very close to the water, with the lower beak cutting the water surface.

Taxa: Rynchops niger
Size: huge
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: >100 mm, mangrove, sand beach
Egret bird
Egret bird

Egret bird

Taxa: Ardeidae
Size: huge
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: >100 mm, mangrove, sand beach
Southern lapwing bird
Southern lapwing bird
The Southern Lapwing, known in Brazil as "quero-quero", lives in coastal areas, pastures and lawns. Feeds on aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates.

Southern lapwing bird

The Southern Lapwing, known in Brazil as "quero-quero", lives in coastal areas, pastures and lawns. Feeds on aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates.

Taxa: Vanellus chilensis
Size: huge
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: >100 mm, mangrove, sand beach
Snail
Snail
The tiny snail Olivella minuta can form dense populations in sandy or sandy-muddy sediments. As it moves around during low tides this snail leaves a grooved trail behind.

Snail

The tiny snail Olivella minuta can form dense populations in sandy or sandy-muddy sediments. As it moves around during low tides this snail leaves a grooved trail behind.

Taxa: Olivella minuta
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, benthic, infauna, mangrove, sand beach
Snail
Snail
Littoraria flava often occurs on rocky shores close to estuaries and mangroves. It is an ovoviviparous species, ant its life cycle includes a planktonic larval stage and a sedentary adult stage. In the Bay Araçá it usually forms large aggregates on rocks and mangrove roots.

Snail

Littoraria flava often occurs on rocky shores close to estuaries and mangroves. It is an ovoviviparous species, ant its life cycle includes a planktonic larval stage and a sedentary adult stage. In the Bay Araçá it usually forms large aggregates on rocks and mangrove roots.

Taxa: Littorina flava
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, benthic, macrophotography, mangrove, rocky-shore
Clams
Clams

Clams

Taxa: Chione
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, benthic, macrophotography, sand beach
Snail
Snail
Intertidal snail.

Snail

Intertidal snail.

Taxa: Cerithium atratum
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, benthic, macrophotography, sand beach
Limpet snail
Limpet snail

Limpet snail

Taxa: Siphonaria hispida
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, benthic, macrophotography, rocky-shore
Clam
Clam
The edible bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana inhabit sand flats, being common along the Brazilian coastline.

Clam

The edible bivalve Anomalocardia brasiliana inhabit sand flats, being common along the Brazilian coastline.

Taxa: Anomalocardia brasiliana
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, benthic, macrophotography, sand beach
Snail
Snail
The tiny snail Olivella minuta can form dense populations in sandy or sandy-muddy sediments. As it moves around during low tides this snail leaves a grooved trail behind.

Snail

The tiny snail Olivella minuta can form dense populations in sandy or sandy-muddy sediments. As it moves around during low tides this snail leaves a grooved trail behind.

Taxa: Olivella minuta
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, benthic, infauna, mangrove, sand beach
Snail
Snail
The tiny snail Olivella minuta can form dense populations in sandy or sandy-muddy sediments. As it moves around during low tides this snail leaves a grooved trail behind.

Snail

The tiny snail Olivella minuta can form dense populations in sandy or sandy-muddy sediments. As it moves around during low tides this snail leaves a grooved trail behind.

Taxa: Olivella minuta
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, benthic, infauna, mangrove, sand beach
Snail
Snail
Littoraria flava often occurs on rocky shores close to estuaries and mangroves. It is an ovoviviparous species, ant its life cycle includes a planktonic larval stage and a sedentary adult stage. In the Bay Araçá it usually forms large aggregates on rocks and mangrove roots.

Snail

Littoraria flava often occurs on rocky shores close to estuaries and mangroves. It is an ovoviviparous species, ant its life cycle includes a planktonic larval stage and a sedentary adult stage. In the Bay Araçá it usually forms large aggregates on rocks and mangrove roots.

Taxa: Littorina flava
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, benthic, macrophotography, mangrove, rocky-shore
Snail
Snail
Littoraria flava often occurs on rocky shores close to estuaries and mangroves. It is an ovoviviparous species, ant its life cycle includes a planktonic larval stage and a sedentary adult stage. In the Bay Araçá it usually forms large aggregates on rocks and mangrove roots.

Snail

Littoraria flava often occurs on rocky shores close to estuaries and mangroves. It is an ovoviviparous species, ant its life cycle includes a planktonic larval stage and a sedentary adult stage. In the Bay Araçá it usually forms large aggregates on rocks and mangrove roots.

Taxa: Littorina flava
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, benthic, macrophotography, mangrove, rocky-shore
Bryozoan
Bryozoan
Encrusting colonies are common in pebbles and rocks in the intertidal region.

Bryozoan

Encrusting colonies are common in pebbles and rocks in the intertidal region.

Taxa: Schizoporella errata
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, mangrove, rocky-shore
Bryozoan
Bryozoan
Encrusting colonies are common in pebbles and rocks in the intertidal region.

Bryozoan

Encrusting colonies are common in pebbles and rocks in the intertidal region.

Taxa: Schizoporella errata
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, mangrove, rocky-shore
Bryozoan
Bryozoan
Zoobotryum is common on the northern coast of São Paulo, especially in sheltered port areas. Their colonies are branched and whitish and resemble algae. It has been considered an invasive species in many parts of the world.

Bryozoan

Zoobotryum is common on the northern coast of São Paulo, especially in sheltered port areas. Their colonies are branched and whitish and resemble algae. It has been considered an invasive species in many parts of the world.

Taxa: Zoobotryon verticillatum
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Bryozoan
Bryozoan
Bryozoan colony (Bugula) on a crab.

Bryozoan

Bryozoan colony (Bugula) on a crab.

Taxa: Bugula neritina
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Bryozoan
Bryozoan
Bryozoan colony (Bugula) on the seagrass Halodule emarginata.

Bryozoan

Bryozoan colony (Bugula) on the seagrass Halodule emarginata.

Taxon: Bugula neritina, Halodule emarginata
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, mangrove, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
Overview of the mangrove.

Araçá Bay

Overview of the mangrove.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
Local fishermen at work.

Araçá Bay

Local fishermen at work.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
General view.

Araçá Bay

General view.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
Shellfish collected during low tide.

Araçá Bay

Shellfish collected during low tide.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
General view.

Araçá Bay

General view.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
General view during low tide.

Araçá Bay

General view during low tide.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
Caiçara canoes near the shore of Germano.

Araçá Bay

Caiçara canoes near the shore of Germano.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
Product of a day of fishing in the bay.

Araçá Bay

Product of a day of fishing in the bay.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
Caiçara - the native inhabitants of the southeastern Brazilian coast - collecting cockles Anomalocardia brasiliana in sandy-muddy sediment in the intertidal region.

Araçá Bay

Caiçara - the native inhabitants of the southeastern Brazilian coast - collecting cockles Anomalocardia brasiliana in sandy-muddy sediment in the intertidal region.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, infauna, mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
General view during flood tide; in the background, the mangrove trees.

Araçá Bay

General view during flood tide; in the background, the mangrove trees.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
Product of a day of fishing in the bay.

Araçá Bay

Product of a day of fishing in the bay.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
Overview of the mangrove.

Araçá Bay

Overview of the mangrove.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
Local fishing boat during low tide.

Araçá Bay

Local fishing boat during low tide.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
View from the rocky shore near the point of Araçá.

Araçá Bay

View from the rocky shore near the point of Araçá.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
View of Ponta do Araçá.

Araçá Bay

View of Ponta do Araçá.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
Sandy-muddy bottom in the intertidal zone.

Araçá Bay

Sandy-muddy bottom in the intertidal zone.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
General view during low tide.

Araçá Bay

General view during low tide.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
Local fishermen at work.

Araçá Bay

Local fishermen at work.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
Local fishermen at work.

Araçá Bay

Local fishermen at work.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Araçá Bay
Araçá Bay
Product of a day of fishing in the bay.

Araçá Bay

Product of a day of fishing in the bay.

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Hydroid
Hydroid
Dynamena crisioides is one of the species restricted to intertidal habitats along tropical and subtropical coasts.

Hydroid

Dynamena crisioides is one of the species restricted to intertidal habitats along tropical and subtropical coasts.

Taxa: Dynamena crisioides
Size: large
Place: Ponta do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, cebimar-usp, macrophotography, rocky-shore
Sea pansy
Sea pansy
The sea pansy is a collection of polyps having different forms and functions, being common in sand flats in protected areas.

Sea pansy

The sea pansy is a collection of polyps having different forms and functions, being common in sand flats in protected areas.

Taxa: Renilla reniformis
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, mangrove, sand beach
Sea anemone
Sea anemone

Sea anemone

Taxa: Actiniidae
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Sea pansy
Sea pansy
The sea pansy is a collection of polyps having different forms and functions, being common in sand flats in protected areas.

Sea pansy

The sea pansy is a collection of polyps having different forms and functions, being common in sand flats in protected areas.

Taxa: Renilla reniformis
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, mangrove, sand beach
Mangrove trees
Mangrove trees

Mangrove trees

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, mangrove, sand beach
Black mangrove
Black mangrove

Black mangrove

Taxa: Avicennia schaueriana
Size: huge
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: >100 mm, benthic, mangrove
Red mangrove
Red mangrove

Red mangrove

Taxa: Rhizophora mangle
Size: huge
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: >100 mm, benthic, mangrove
Scale insects associated with the white mangrove
Scale insects associated with the white mangrove

Scale insects associated with the white mangrove

Taxa: Hemiptera
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, macrophotography, mangrove
Green alga
Green alga

Green alga

Taxa: Enteromorpha
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, rocky-shore
Red mangrove
Red mangrove

Red mangrove

Taxa: Rhizophora mangle
Size: huge
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: >100 mm, benthic, mangrove
Mangrove trees
Mangrove trees

Mangrove trees

Size: none
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: benthic, mangrove, sand beach
Crab
Crab
Crab

Crab

Crab

Taxa: Eriphia gonagra
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, epifauna, rocky-shore
Spider crab
Spider crab
The spider crab has very long and thin legs and a narrow triangular body with a long rostrum.

Spider crab

The spider crab has very long and thin legs and a narrow triangular body with a long rostrum.

Taxa: Stenorhynchus seticornis
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, benthic, mangrove, rocky-shore
Barnacles
Barnacles
Barnacles are an entirely marine group of crustaceans with a sessile way of life, attached permanently to a hard substrate, such as rocks, shells, corals, roots etc.

Barnacles

Barnacles are an entirely marine group of crustaceans with a sessile way of life, attached permanently to a hard substrate, such as rocks, shells, corals, roots etc.

Taxa: Chthamalus
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, benthic, epifauna, mangrove, rocky-shore
Crab
Crab
Crab

Crab

Crab

Taxa: Portunus
Size: huge
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: >100 mm, benthic, epifauna, mangrove, sand beach
Barnacles
Barnacles
Barnacles are an entirely marine group of crustaceans with a sessile way of life, attached permanently to a hard substrate, such as rocks, shells, corals, roots etc.

Barnacles

Barnacles are an entirely marine group of crustaceans with a sessile way of life, attached permanently to a hard substrate, such as rocks, shells, corals, roots etc.

Taxa: Chthamalus
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, benthic, epifauna, mangrove, rocky-shore
Pistol shrimp or alpheid shrimp
Pistol shrimp or alpheid shrimp
Small alpheid shrimp usually found under stones.

Pistol shrimp or alpheid shrimp

Small alpheid shrimp usually found under stones.

Taxa: Alpheus verrilli
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, macrophotography, mangrove, sand beach
Pedunculated barnacle
Pedunculated barnacle
Pedunculate barnacle

Pedunculated barnacle

Pedunculate barnacle

Taxa: Lepas
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, sand beach
Barnacles
Barnacles
Barnacles are an entirely marine group of crustaceans with a sessile way of life, attached permanently to a hard substrate, such as rocks, shells, corals, roots etc.

Barnacles

Barnacles are an entirely marine group of crustaceans with a sessile way of life, attached permanently to a hard substrate, such as rocks, shells, corals, roots etc.

Taxa: Chthamalus
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, benthic, epifauna, mangrove, rocky-shore
Hermit crab
Hermit crab
Hermit crab.

Hermit crab

Hermit crab.

Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, epifauna, mangrove, sand beach
Hermit crab
Hermit crab
Hermit crab.

Hermit crab

Hermit crab.

Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, epifauna, mangrove, sand beach
Fiddler crab
Fiddler crab
Fiddler crab.

Fiddler crab

Fiddler crab.

Taxa: Uca
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, epifauna, rocky-shore
Tubiculous polychaete
Tubiculous polychaete
Sabellid polychaete.

Tubiculous polychaete

Sabellid polychaete.

Taxa: Branchiomma luctuosum
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, benthic, cebimar-usp, invasive species, macrophotography, sand beach
Tubiculous polychaete
Tubiculous polychaete
Diopatra tube on intertidal flat.

Tubiculous polychaete

Diopatra tube on intertidal flat.

Taxa: Diopatra
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, benthic, macrophotography, sand beach
Tubiculous polychaete
Tubiculous polychaete
Sabellid polychaete.

Tubiculous polychaete

Sabellid polychaete.

Taxa: Branchiomma luctuosum
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, benthic, cebimar-usp, invasive species, macrophotography, sand beach
Sand dollar
Sand dollar
The sand dollar Encope emarginata is found on soft sediments in the intertidal and subtidal zones

Sand dollar

The sand dollar Encope emarginata is found on soft sediments in the intertidal and subtidal zones

Taxa: Encope emarginata
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, benthic, sand beach
Black sea urchin
Black sea urchin
The black sea urchin spines has relatively thick and very resistant spines. The coloration of the spines and carapace varies from dark brown to black. Known locally as “pindá” it is an abundant species on the Brazilian coast, coastal, found predominantly in holes bore into the rocks. It feeds on algae and encrusting animals. Occurs from Florida to southern Brazil, as well as West Indies, Bermuda, Ascension Island, St Helena and Angola.

Black sea urchin

The black sea urchin spines has relatively thick and very resistant spines. The coloration of the spines and carapace varies from dark brown to black. Known locally as “pindá” it is an abundant species on the Brazilian coast, coastal, found predominantly in holes bore into the rocks. It feeds on algae and encrusting animals. Occurs from Florida to southern Brazil, as well as West Indies, Bermuda, Ascension Island, St Helena and Angola.

Taxa: Echinometra lucunter
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, benthic, epifauna, rocky-shore
Balanoglossus gigas
Balanoglossus gigas
Acorn worm (enteropneust) - marine burrowing wormlike invertebrate.

Balanoglossus gigas

Acorn worm (enteropneust) - marine burrowing wormlike invertebrate.

Taxa: Balanoglossus gigas
Size: huge
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: >100 mm, adult, benthic, infauna, macrophotography, mangrove, risk of extinction, sand beach
Sponge
Sponge

Sponge

Taxa: Porifera
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, cebimar-usp, rocky-shore
Sponge
Sponge

Sponge

Taxa: Porifera
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, cebimar-usp, rocky-shore
Summit of São Sebastião
Summit of São Sebastião
View of São Sebastião channel and Araçá bay.

Summit of São Sebastião

View of São Sebastião channel and Araçá bay.

Size: none
Place: Pico de São Sebastião, Ilhabela, SP, Brazil
Tag: landscape
Summit of São Sebastião
Summit of São Sebastião
View of São Sebastião channel and Araçá bay.

Summit of São Sebastião

View of São Sebastião channel and Araçá bay.

Size: none
Place: Pico de São Sebastião, Ilhabela, SP, Brazil
Tag: landscape
Hydroid
Hydroid
Gonotheca, 60x.

Hydroid

Gonotheca, 60x.

Taxa: Sertularia marginata
Size: large
Place: Ponta do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, cebimar-usp, mev, rocky-shore
Hydroid
Hydroid
Colony on a brown algae.

Hydroid

Colony on a brown algae.

Taxon: Dynamena disticha, Sargassum
Size: visible
Place: Ponta do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, benthic, cebimar-usp, dark field, epibiotic, rocky-shore
Hydroid
Hydroid
Dynamena crisioides is one of the species restricted to intertidal habitats along tropical and subtropical coasts.

Hydroid

Dynamena crisioides is one of the species restricted to intertidal habitats along tropical and subtropical coasts.

Taxa: Dynamena crisioides
Size: visible
Place: Ponta do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, benthic, cebimar-usp, intertidal, macrophotography, rocky-shore
Sea cucumber
Sea cucumber
Adult specimen in dorsal view.

Sea cucumber

Adult specimen in dorsal view.

Taxa: Holothuria grisea
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, benthic, cebimar-usp, epifauna, macrophotography
Brittle star
Brittle star

Brittle star

Taxa: Ophiothrix
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, benthic, cebimar-usp, dark field, soft bottom
Fire worm
Fire worm
The fire-worms are benthic animals that live under rocks and among other marine organisms; they have white, numerous, and large bristles that may cause skin irritation.

Fire worm

The fire-worms are benthic animals that live under rocks and among other marine organisms; they have white, numerous, and large bristles that may cause skin irritation.

Taxa: Eurythoe complanata
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, benthic, cebimar-usp, infauna
Fire worm
Fire worm
The fire-worms are benthic animals that live under rocks and among other marine organisms; they have white, numerous, and large bristles that may cause skin irritation.

Fire worm

The fire-worms are benthic animals that live under rocks and among other marine organisms; they have white, numerous, and large bristles that may cause skin irritation.

Taxa: Eurythoe complanata
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, benthic, cebimar-usp, infauna
Bryozoan
Bryozoan
Zoobotryum is common on the northern coast of São Paulo, especially in sheltered port areas. Their colonies are branched and whitish and resemble algae. It has been considered an invasive species in many parts of the world.

Bryozoan

Zoobotryum is common on the northern coast of São Paulo, especially in sheltered port areas. Their colonies are branched and whitish and resemble algae. It has been considered an invasive species in many parts of the world.

Taxa: Zoobotryon verticillatum
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, mangrove, rocky-shore, sand beach
Entoprocta
Entoprocta
Os Entoprocta (=Kamptozoa) compreendem um filo de animais invertebrados sésseis, coloniais ou solitários, um dos grupos menos conhecidos do Reino animal e de posição filogenética obscura e controversa. Cerca de 180 espécies foram descritas mundialmente. Pequenos, transparentes e de hábitos crípticos, os entoproctos passam geralmente despercebidos, embora sejam relativamente comuns em substratos consolidados, como rochas, seixos, corais, conchas e algas, sendo comensais de muitas espécies de invertebrados, como esponjas, poliquetas, sipuncúlidos. São frequentemente encontrados dentro dos tubos e galerias de seus hospedeiros. Eles são muito parecidos com alguns briozoários e hidrozoários pelo aspecto geral e hábito. Os indivíduos são formados basicamente por uma região distal superior, denominada cálice e que possui uma coroa de tentáculos ciliados, e uma haste denominada pedúnculo, na qual o cálice é sustentado; o pedúnculo pode ser preso diretamente ao substrato através de uma estrutura dilatada, denominada pé e característico das espécies solitárias, ou através de estolões nas espécies coloniais.

Entoprocta

Os Entoprocta (=Kamptozoa) compreendem um filo de animais invertebrados sésseis, coloniais ou solitários, um dos grupos menos conhecidos do Reino animal e de posição filogenética obscura e controversa. Cerca de 180 espécies foram descritas mundialmente. Pequenos, transparentes e de hábitos crípticos, os entoproctos passam geralmente despercebidos, embora sejam relativamente comuns em substratos consolidados, como rochas, seixos, corais, conchas e algas, sendo comensais de muitas espécies de invertebrados, como esponjas, poliquetas, sipuncúlidos. São frequentemente encontrados dentro dos tubos e galerias de seus hospedeiros. Eles são muito parecidos com alguns briozoários e hidrozoários pelo aspecto geral e hábito. Os indivíduos são formados basicamente por uma região distal superior, denominada cálice e que possui uma coroa de tentáculos ciliados, e uma haste denominada pedúnculo, na qual o cálice é sustentado; o pedúnculo pode ser preso diretamente ao substrato através de uma estrutura dilatada, denominada pé e característico das espécies solitárias, ou através de estolões nas espécies coloniais.

Taxa: Barentsia capitata
Size: tiny
Place: Praia de Barequeçaba, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, adult, benthic, cebimar-usp, dark field, epibiotic, rocky-shore
Entoprocta
Entoprocta
Os Entoprocta (=Kamptozoa) compreendem um filo de animais invertebrados sésseis, coloniais ou solitários, um dos grupos menos conhecidos do Reino animal e de posição filogenética obscura e controversa. Cerca de 180 espécies foram descritas mundialmente. Pequenos, transparentes e de hábitos crípticos, os entoproctos passam geralmente despercebidos, embora sejam relativamente comuns em substratos consolidados, como rochas, seixos, corais, conchas e algas, sendo comensais de muitas espécies de invertebrados, como esponjas, poliquetas, sipuncúlidos. São frequentemente encontrados dentro dos tubos e galerias de seus hospedeiros. Eles são muito parecidos com alguns briozoários e hidrozoários pelo aspecto geral e hábito. Os indivíduos são formados basicamente por uma região distal superior, denominada cálice e que possui uma coroa de tentáculos ciliados, e uma haste denominada pedúnculo, na qual o cálice é sustentado; o pedúnculo pode ser preso diretamente ao substrato através de uma estrutura dilatada, denominada pé e característico das espécies solitárias, ou através de estolões nas espécies coloniais.

Entoprocta

Os Entoprocta (=Kamptozoa) compreendem um filo de animais invertebrados sésseis, coloniais ou solitários, um dos grupos menos conhecidos do Reino animal e de posição filogenética obscura e controversa. Cerca de 180 espécies foram descritas mundialmente. Pequenos, transparentes e de hábitos crípticos, os entoproctos passam geralmente despercebidos, embora sejam relativamente comuns em substratos consolidados, como rochas, seixos, corais, conchas e algas, sendo comensais de muitas espécies de invertebrados, como esponjas, poliquetas, sipuncúlidos. São frequentemente encontrados dentro dos tubos e galerias de seus hospedeiros. Eles são muito parecidos com alguns briozoários e hidrozoários pelo aspecto geral e hábito. Os indivíduos são formados basicamente por uma região distal superior, denominada cálice e que possui uma coroa de tentáculos ciliados, e uma haste denominada pedúnculo, na qual o cálice é sustentado; o pedúnculo pode ser preso diretamente ao substrato através de uma estrutura dilatada, denominada pé e característico das espécies solitárias, ou através de estolões nas espécies coloniais.

Taxa: Barentsia discreta
Size: tiny
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, adult, benthic, cebimar-usp, dark field, epibiotic, rocky-shore
Entoprocta
Entoprocta
Os Entoprocta (=Kamptozoa) compreendem um filo de animais invertebrados sésseis, coloniais ou solitários, um dos grupos menos conhecidos do Reino animal e de posição filogenética obscura e controversa. Cerca de 180 espécies foram descritas mundialmente. Pequenos, transparentes e de hábitos crípticos, os entoproctos passam geralmente despercebidos, embora sejam relativamente comuns em substratos consolidados, como rochas, seixos, corais, conchas e algas, sendo comensais de muitas espécies de invertebrados, como esponjas, poliquetas, sipuncúlidos. São frequentemente encontrados dentro dos tubos e galerias de seus hospedeiros. Eles são muito parecidos com alguns briozoários e hidrozoários pelo aspecto geral e hábito. Os indivíduos são formados basicamente por uma região distal superior, denominada cálice e que possui uma coroa de tentáculos ciliados, e uma haste denominada pedúnculo, na qual o cálice é sustentado; o pedúnculo pode ser preso diretamente ao substrato através de uma estrutura dilatada, denominada pé e característico das espécies solitárias, ou através de estolões nas espécies coloniais.

Entoprocta

Os Entoprocta (=Kamptozoa) compreendem um filo de animais invertebrados sésseis, coloniais ou solitários, um dos grupos menos conhecidos do Reino animal e de posição filogenética obscura e controversa. Cerca de 180 espécies foram descritas mundialmente. Pequenos, transparentes e de hábitos crípticos, os entoproctos passam geralmente despercebidos, embora sejam relativamente comuns em substratos consolidados, como rochas, seixos, corais, conchas e algas, sendo comensais de muitas espécies de invertebrados, como esponjas, poliquetas, sipuncúlidos. São frequentemente encontrados dentro dos tubos e galerias de seus hospedeiros. Eles são muito parecidos com alguns briozoários e hidrozoários pelo aspecto geral e hábito. Os indivíduos são formados basicamente por uma região distal superior, denominada cálice e que possui uma coroa de tentáculos ciliados, e uma haste denominada pedúnculo, na qual o cálice é sustentado; o pedúnculo pode ser preso diretamente ao substrato através de uma estrutura dilatada, denominada pé e característico das espécies solitárias, ou através de estolões nas espécies coloniais.

Taxa: Pedicellina cernua
Size: tiny
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, adult, benthic, cebimar-usp, dark field, epibiotic, rocky-shore
Echiuran
Echiuran
The Echiura, or spoon worms, have a pear shaped, non-segmented body and a large and non-retractile proboscis. In the anterior ventral region there is a pair of setae or hooks. They live in burrows in sand, mud, corals and coral crevices. Some species are found inside the tests of dead sand dollars and between the shells of dead bivalves. There is strong evidence that echiurans are in fact modified annelids.

Echiuran

The Echiura, or spoon worms, have a pear shaped, non-segmented body and a large and non-retractile proboscis. In the anterior ventral region there is a pair of setae or hooks. They live in burrows in sand, mud, corals and coral crevices. Some species are found inside the tests of dead sand dollars and between the shells of dead bivalves. There is strong evidence that echiurans are in fact modified annelids.

Taxa: Lissomyema exilii
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, benthic, cebimar-usp, intertidal, macrophotography, soft bottom
microcrustacean in lateral view
microcrustacean in lateral view
The tanaid Kalliapseudes is abundant in the bay of Araçá and is commonly found in estuaries and sandy-muddy tidal flats of the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. It builds galleries in the substrate and feeds on particulate matter brought by water flow.

microcrustacean in lateral view

The tanaid Kalliapseudes is abundant in the bay of Araçá and is commonly found in estuaries and sandy-muddy tidal flats of the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. It builds galleries in the substrate and feeds on particulate matter brought by water flow.

Taxa: Kalliapseudes schubarti
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, benthic, cebimar-usp, intertidal, macrofauna, macrophotography, soft bottom
Clam
Clam

Clam

Taxa: Macoma constricta
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, benthic, intertidal, macrofauna, macrophotography, soft bottom
Marks made by the bivalve Macoma into the sand and mud bottom
Marks made by the bivalve Macoma into the sand and mud bottom
Orifice through which the inhalant siphon of the bivalve is extended, and star-shaped marks left on the sediment its retraction.

Marks made by the bivalve Macoma into the sand and mud bottom

Orifice through which the inhalant siphon of the bivalve is extended, and star-shaped marks left on the sediment its retraction.

Taxa: Macoma constricta
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, benthic, intertidal, macrofauna, macrophotography, soft bottom
Snail
Snail

Snail

Taxa: Neritina virginea
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, benthic, intertidal, macrofauna, macrophotography, soft bottom
Snail
Snail

Snail

Taxa: Neritina virginea
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, benthic, intertidal, macrofauna, macrophotography, soft bottom
Snail
Snail

Snail

Taxa: Neritina virginea
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, benthic, intertidal, macrofauna, macrophotography, soft bottom
Snail on white mangrove roots
Snail on white mangrove roots

Snail on white mangrove roots

Taxa: Littorina angulifera
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, benthic, hard bottom, intertidal, macrophotography, mangrove
Snail
Snail

Snail

Taxa: Nassarius vibex
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, benthic, intertidal, macrofauna, macrophotography, soft bottom
Snail
Snail
The tiny snail Olivella minuta can form dense populations in sandy or sandy-muddy sediments. As it moves around during low tides this snail leaves a grooved trail behind.

Snail

The tiny snail Olivella minuta can form dense populations in sandy or sandy-muddy sediments. As it moves around during low tides this snail leaves a grooved trail behind.

Taxa: Olivella minuta
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, benthic, infauna, mangrove, sand beach
Scale worm - detail of a scale (elytrum)
Scale worm - detail of a scale (elytrum)

Scale worm - detail of a scale (elytrum)

Taxa: Polynoidae
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, benthic, cebimar-usp, dark field, hard bottom, intertidal, macrofauna, rocky-shore
Scale worm
Scale worm

Scale worm

Taxa: Polynoidae
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, benthic, cebimar-usp, hard bottom, intertidal, macrofauna, macrophotography, rocky-shore
Tubiculous polychaete
Tubiculous polychaete

Tubiculous polychaete

Taxa: Diopatra aciculata
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, adult, benthic, cebimar-usp, intertidal, macrofauna, macrophotography, soft bottom
Polychaete
Polychaete

Polychaete

Taxon: Zoobotryon verticillatum, Chaetopterus
Size: large
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 10 - 100 mm, benthic, cebimar-usp, intertidal, macrofauna, macrophotography, soft bottom
Bryozoan
Bryozoan

Bryozoan

Taxa: Beania klugei
Size: visible
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 1.0 - 10 mm, adult, benthic, cebimar-usp, dark field
Worm
Worm

Worm

Taxa: Oligochaeta
Size: tiny
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, benthic, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, intertidal, meiofauna, soft bottom
Sabellid polychaete
Sabellid polychaete

Sabellid polychaete

Taxa: Syllidae
Size: tiny
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, benthic, cebimar-usp, dark field, intertidal, meiofauna, soft bottom
Sabellid polychaete
Sabellid polychaete

Sabellid polychaete

Taxa: Eurinaceusyllis subterranea
Size: tiny
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, benthic, cebimar-usp, dark field, intertidal, meiofauna, soft bottom
Sabellid polychaete
Sabellid polychaete

Sabellid polychaete

Taxa: Eurinaceusyllis subterranea
Size: tiny
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, benthic, cebimar-usp, Differential interference contrast, intertidal, meiofauna, soft bottom
Kinorhynch
Kinorhynch

Kinorhynch

Taxa: Kinorhyncha
Size: tiny
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, benthic, cebimar-usp, intertidal, meiofauna, soft bottom
Kinorhynch
Kinorhynch

Kinorhynch

Taxa: Kinorhyncha
Size: tiny
Place: Baía do Araçá, São Sebastião, SP, Brazil
Tags: 0.1 - 1.0 mm, benthic, cebimar-usp, intertidal, meiofauna, soft bottom

The Araçá Bay (São Sebastião, State of São Paulo), within one of Brazil’s most beautiful coastlines, has small relict mangrove stands and a very diverse marine ecosystem. As such, the bay is a natural laboratory as well as important for local small-scale fishing.

Considered a natural area for expansion of the port of São Sebastião, the Araçá bay almost disappeared from the landscape. In 1987, the filling project of the bay was prevented by pressure from environmentalists and the scientific community. A year later, the bay was dredged for the placement of a sewage outfall, which caused profound ecological damage, habitat destruction, and death of organisms. For twenty years the sewage generated in the central region of the municipality was dumped in the vicinity of Araçá through this outfall, which remains operating without an environmental license. Moreover, the growing urbanization contributes to the environmental impacts on the bay, increasing the amount of waste and sewage dumped. In 2008, the threat of filling the remainder of the Araçá Bay was announced again.

However, although polluted and depleted, the Araçá insists to show vitality. Marine species that had disappeared as a result of the dredging reappeared several years after this ecological crime. Herons and spoonbills are seen more often in the shallow and muddy waters of the bay.

While far from its pristine condition, which partly motivated the creation of CEBIMar in the 1950s, the Araçá remains a place for studying and teaching. It is one of the most unique coastal marine environments - one of the few mangroves in the coast of São Sebastião, which harbors high biodiversity. 733 species were recorded for the area of which 34 were described as new to science, many have not been found elsewhere. In the list there are endangered species of polychaetes, echinoderms and hemichordates. Being a mangrove area, several marine species common to the region spend part of their life cycles in the bay, such as crustaceans and fish.

The Araçá is also home to species that are natural resources such as mollusks, shrimps and fish. Fishermen and shellfish gatherers take advantage of low tides to collect these resources for their own consumption or to market them in free markets.

The traditional knowledge and scientific data accumulated in more than 50 years of research show how the conservation of this region is important for science and for the lives of all who depend on it. Thus, there is an unquestionable need to protect species that insist on keeping the precious wealth of the bay of Araçá.

The reclamation of Araçá will not only destroy this complex ecosystem, the ecological damage will certainly not be restricted to the region. The rectification of the coastline will affect the dynamics of sedimentation in the channel, possibly causing siltation or erosion on nearby beaches. The desired sustainable relationship between tourism and environment rarely blooms in ports and industrial areas. São Sebastião has the responsibility to keep safe this fragile environmental heritage for the enjoyment of this and future generations.

References

2011 Felipelli T. Para Cetesb e prefeito de São Sebastião, Mangue do Araçá pode estar morto; ambientalistas apontam ao contrário. Imprensa Livre, url:http://www.imprensalivre.com.br/extras/top_impressao.php?edit=3&id=37874
2010 Amaral ACZ, Migotto AE, Turra A, Schaeffer-Novelli Y. Araçá: biodiversidade, impactos e ameaças. Biota Neotropica, 10(1): 219-264, url:http://www.scielo.br/pdf/bn/v10n1/a22v10n1.pdf